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I have been working with adjectives and I ran into a noun that I do not know how to handle when it comes to endings. I am curoious if you guys could help me with if "cymka" would have the same endings like "кни́га" or like "ви́за" for the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, Instrumentalis and P* cases.

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  • 1
    If you're talking of the noun "СУМКА" (bag, tote), there is no difference, it's 1st declension, feminine. If you're trying to make a singular from the word "СУТКИ", there is none. It's plural, so treat it as such. It's also 1st declension, feminine, though. – Victor Bazarov Oct 15 '15 at 18:10
  • To find all word forms of a particular word you can try this rifmovnik.ru/find – Avtokod Oct 16 '15 at 0:41
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I'm not sure what's the general rule is, if any, but for "сумка" the set of endings is the same as for "книга", but not as for "виза". Consider this:

                 singular |    plural
               -----------------------
Nominative    |   сумка   |    сумки
Accusative    |   сумку   |    сумки
Genitive      |   сумки   |    сумок
Dative        |   сумке   |    сумкам
Prepositional | (о) сумке | (о) сумках
Instrumental  |  сумкой   |   сумками

This is the general model for first declension feminine, the same for "сумка" and "книга". The noun "виза" acts a bit differently:

                 singular |    plural
               -----------------------
Nominative    |   виза   |    визы
Accusative    |   визу   |    визы
Genitive      |   визы   |    виз
Dative        |   визе   |    визам
Prepositional | (о) визе | (о) визах
Instrumental  |   визой  |   визами

Unfortunately, I can't give you the general rule as to why that happens. The trick seems to be in the presense of letter з, since the words "зебра" (zebra) and "Лиза" (given name Lisa) both act as "виза", but this is uncertain.

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  • The trick is with the ending letter of the stem "к/г". The sequences "кы/гы" are impossible in Russian except some loanwords. – grep Oct 15 '15 at 21:52
  • That doesn't explain the difference in plural Genitive. – Francis Drake Oct 16 '15 at 12:06
  • Plural genitive is tricky, not sure if there is any rule about it. – Alissa Oct 16 '15 at 12:20
  • I think the plural genitive makes sense here. It has no ending, but pronouncing сумк would be very difficult. So you insert a vowel for easier pronunciation and get сумок. – Dima Oct 16 '15 at 16:51
  • @Dima the ease of pronunciation alone does not explain it: gen.pl. of «полка» (shelf) is «полок», although one can say «полк» (regimen). The actual reason is that the suffix «к» in these words is actually «-ок», with o being reduced – J-mster Oct 16 '15 at 19:53
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The short answer is книга, but these are not really "different" endings. The difference comes from the spelling rule that you use soft vowels after certain consonants, like к and г.

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