If I wanted to say 'you just blew my mind', or maybe in other words, 'I'm trying to wrap my mind around what you just said/did,' what might be some possible translations?
Quite possible that "взорвал мой мозг" became quite common due to vocabulary limitations of the modern youth which is under enormous pressure from the West and its culture (and language) and trying to cope with it using literal translations of pop culture idioms previously unknown to them. Nothing we can do about that.
The expression "вынес мне мозги" or "снёс мне мозги" sounds a bit smoother and actually closer to the intention.
As to wrapping one's mind around something, I'd use "охватить что-то умом" or "постичь что-то"
Я не въезжаю; Я не догоняю; Я не врубаюсь; Я не вкурил - slang; means "I really can't understand".
Ты мне мозг взорвал; Ты мне мозг вынес - rather modern (mostly teenager) slang; seems like a calque from English.
The following may also be usable:
Ну ты даёшь - colloquial; "This is not what I expected of you".
Да ты гонишь! - slang; "You tell me shit"; may also mean "You got me surprised; Is this for real?!".