23

What are the mechanics behind using надо over нужно or vice versa? What governs when they are interchangeable and when not?

To be perfectly clear: I have no problems simply using whichever sounds most natural in a given situation. So providing just a handful of examples won't do it for me; I can come up with a handful of examples myself. What I'm missing is the big picture; I'm not quite seeing a meaningful pattern.

I know that entire PhD theses have been written on the subject. So while I'm not asking for that level of detail, a comprehensive overview would be nice. And of course if you can actually cite or link to said theses or other papers to back up your points, that would be a major plus.

Edit: so far surprisingly many people have stated things such as "they are absolutely synonymous", "drawing the line between them is unnesessary", and the like. This is simply not true; if it were, this question simply would not exist, and neither would the white papers I hinted at.

There are situations in which надо simply cannot be replaced with нужно. If you can't think of them right now, that's fine; but please do not go ahead and claim they don't exist. As a simple experiment, I dare you to replace every single occurrence of "не надо" in your speech with a "не нужно". See for yourself how much mental effort it will cost you, how long you can keep it up, and how strange it will make you sound. You might pass for an American spy with flying colors, but nobody will mistake you for a native speaker.

  • 1
    I am surprised a substantial Ph.D. thesis could be written on the choice between two words. – KCd Nov 9 '12 at 0:26
  • 2
    "There are situations in which надо simply cannot be replaced with нужно" - Why wouldn't you share those cases here? – brilliant Dec 16 '12 at 14:33

11 Answers 11

9

I disagree with some answers that нужно is more formal than надо. «Надо» is widely used even in official public speech, e.g.:

Владимир Путин: «Надо обратить внимание на требования тех, кто не смог победить» [1]

Either word may sound formally or colloqially, and it depends on the context and the entire phrase. An example of an informal нужно: нужно поспеть. An example of a formal надо: надо успеть.

My choice of the word is mostly phonetical. Sometimes I prefer how надо sounds, and dislike how нужно sounds, and that's all.

I'd also say that нужно is more emotionally charged, it speaks about personal need, and надо is more neutral. For me the reason is that нужно associates with a noun «нужда» (poverty, not a good thing; coincidentally, it is the word used colloquially to express the need to urinate/defecate; and only then it is need in general). Надо associates with «надобность» (which is just a necessity; the word is slightly bookish). So I feel that, while generally надо and нужно are interchangeable, надо is more neutral emotionally. If I wanted to be really formal, I'd use необходимо instead of надо or нужно.

That said, I am not a linguist, it is just my layman's opinion.

  • 2
    "official" speech and official documents are two different things. "Мочить в сортире" и "дерзко бороться с терроризмом" are far from formal, though Владимир Владимирович said that. – shabunc Nov 8 '12 at 12:13
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    @shabunc In my example the speech is very formal. It is not the case of him being vulgar on purpose. – sastanin Nov 8 '12 at 12:19
  • nevertheless formal speech and official documents are quite different things, I assure you. – shabunc Nov 8 '12 at 12:21
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    @shabunc That's obvious, but the question (and my answer) is not about documents (official or not). It is about word choice in general. My point is that both words are acceptable in formal speech. It is a counter-example to Polinka's answer. – sastanin Nov 8 '12 at 12:33
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    With all (un)due respect, Mr. Putin's rhetoric cannot be considered a good example of formal speech, because he consistently chooses words and expressions of the lowest-prestige variety (in sociolinguistic terms). – dasblinkenlight Jan 17 '13 at 14:21
12

The general and simple idea of how to use нужно and надо in proper way might look as follows:

  • You can not use надо in cases, when your sentence aim a noun:

Мне нужна эта отвертка
Мне нужен этот молоток
Мне нужна твоя помощь

  • In cases when your sentence states that you need to do something, надо and нужно are interchangeable.

Мне нужно это сделать до завтрашнего утра
Мне надо это сделать до завтрашнего утра
Мне нужно сходить в туалет
Мне надо сходить в туалет

  • The are also set phrases like надо бы, when the use of надо sounds more natural, but нужно бы is also correct.

Personally, I prefer to use нужно over надо because it sounds more accurate. But except for the first case I mentioned, the difference is a subject for PhD, indeed.

5

Нужно is more formal, надо - is a colloquial word. They have the same meaning when we use them with verbs. But if we talk about the nouns, we shoud use нужно/ нужна/ нужен.

Examples:

Тебе нужна моя помощь.

(помощь - noun, feminine - ending ). We can't say Тебе надо моя помощь.

Мне нужен этот учебник.

(учебник - noun, masculine - zero ending). We can't say Мне надо этот учебник.

Мне нужно солнце.

(солнце - noun, neuter - ending ). We can't say Мне надо солнце.

  • 3
    You are confusing adjective нужный and adverb нужно. Надо is an adverb which originated from надобно which in its turn originated from the adjective надобный. The latter, though quite obsolete, can be used in all your sentences: мне надобна твоя помощь etc. – Quassnoi Nov 8 '12 at 10:23
4

Though надо seems to prevail, I don't really see a difference between them used alone.

Out of curiosity, I've just run a search against the corpus for не надо and, going as far as page 12, haven't found a single example where не нужно would not be able to replace it.

There are some differences in idioms and compound expressions though.

надо бы is used more commonly than нужно бы, though the latter is also widely used.

Graphs:

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An interjection надо же! does not have an analog with нужно, though it's possible as an adverbial:

И надо же было, чтобы в эту минуту на улице из-за угла показался на велосипеде Мишка Яковлев. [Валерий Медведев. Баранкин, будь человеком! (1957)]

and

… И нужно же было, чтобы именно в этот день с Крайнего Севера прилетел Северный Ветер! [В. А. Каверин. Много хороших людей и один завистник (1962)]

  • Can't really explain this, but... If you said to me, "Нам нужно поговорить", that would imply to me that you think I need that as much (more or less) as you do, as in "Нам обоим это нужно". And, as a form of "That's what you think", I might very well reply something like "Лично мне не нужно никакого разговора". On the other hand, if you said, "Нам надо поговорить", that would sound to me more like a statement of an objective necessity that we talk. – Andriy M Nov 25 '12 at 4:38
  • @AndriyM: those are pretty synonymous to me. – Quassnoi Nov 25 '12 at 7:08
  • I won't deny that it could be just me. – Andriy M Nov 25 '12 at 12:19
3

I think that the main distinction here is the following:

"надо" is used to state external obligation, that is, when someone has to do something because there is a force outside that makes one do so: police and judges that enforce the law, social norms, etc.

"нужно" is used to express internal necessity, that is, when someone has to do something because one has an urge to do so, because one wants to ease the pain, or has something on one's conscience, etc.

Examples:

a)

Тебе надо успеть убраться раньше, чем придут гости.
Вам надо заплатить долг в течение месяца.

b)

Мне нужно в туалет.
Мне нужно поговорить с ним, пока еще не слишком поздно.

This is the general guideline when you decide which one to use. However, many native speakers may say "нужно" in a) and "надо" in b).

3

You can use both words, they are absolutely synonymous.

Мне нужно в туалет.

Мне надо в туалет.

Тебе надо успеть убраться раньше, чем придут гости.

Тебе нужно успеть убраться раньше, чем придут гости.

There is no difference between these phrases. Russian is not as exact as English, we use a lot of synonyms. )

And it's a mistake to think that either word is more formal. But I would advice you to use необходимо in business correspondence, especially if you address your request to a partner. Because of implication: when you say smb. тебе надо/нужно, you mean "you must do", and тебе необходимо means "you should do".

Wrong: Вам надо отправить мне счет.

Correct: Вам необходимо отправить мне счет.

But it's just common courtesy, not the language terms. =)

  • Why do you think English uses fewer synonyms than Russian? – Quassnoi Nov 8 '12 at 9:30
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    Я думаю, что в русском их больше. Я считаю, что в русском их больше. Я полагаю, что в русском их больше. Я убежден, что в русском их больше. Английский более конкретный, как мне кажется, а наш вариативный. – kls Nov 8 '12 at 9:34
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    Don't you think, consider, presume, suppose, fancy, believe, guess, imagine, reckon, conjecture or surmise you may be wrong? – Quassnoi Nov 8 '12 at 10:15
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    hm..let me поразмышлять, на-, при-, по-, за-думать, вдуматься, вникнуть, помыслить, по- рассуждать, по-, раз- мышлять, мыслить, соображать, по- ломать голову, пораскинуть/по-шевелить мозгами, посчитать позможным, придерживаться точки зрения, предаться размышлениям, решать задачу, напрячь мозг... i made mistake with the terminology. Russian is "вариативный", and English is more precisely. – kls Nov 8 '12 at 11:44
  • did you intend to say that Russian is synthetic while English is analytic? This does not have anything to do with synonyms. You only used five roots in your single-word examples. Like with Great Eskimo Hoax, "large numbers of synonyms" do sound intriguing but, having defined "synonym" in way more suitable for comparison, we'll see that these numbers are greatly exaggerated. – Quassnoi Nov 8 '12 at 12:17
3

I'd say, without giving it too much thought, that 'надо' is closer to 'must', more related to duty, while 'нужно' is closer to 'need', more related to personal needs. For example, a saying:

Есть такое слово - 'надо'

means, roughly, "There is such a thing as duty"; 'нужно' would be completely unappropriate here.

2

Those are almost 100% interchangeable synonyms, though there is a very-very subtle difference. Native speaker unconsciously will use one word instead of other and vice versa, but there are still cases when native speaker will clearly distinguish between these two forms.

The hint is hidden in the fact that phrase надо бы is more appropriate and far more widely used than нужно бы. Thus, надо is less inevitable than нужно. When one says, for example, something like "Ой, надо [бы], наверное в магазин сходить, ни молока ни масла", he or she actually is allowing the possibility that he won't go to shop.

On the other hand, phrase "Нужно купить туалетной бумаги" leaves us with less opportunities )

To continue to illustrate this issue: "Надо подождать" is less obligatory compare to "нужно подождать".

Also, надо is slightly more colloquial and, respectively, нужно is more formal.

There is a famous quotation: "Надо Федя, надо". It is very hard to imagine it existence in form: "Нужно, Федя, нужно". It will sound too pathetic. In that sense "нужно" is closer to third synonym - необходимо.

  • To me (maybe just me) it is exactly opposite: Нужно sounds a bit softer than надо. Like a more polite, less blunt form of expressing necessity in some contexts. But нужно is still stronger than надо бы. For example, if you want to give strong message to a child, you say надо сходить в магазин, if you say нужно сходить в магазин, it leaves some softness in the message - "maybe not need to go right now" (of course it also depends on the intonation, but to me нужно lends to softer intonation), finally, if you say надо бы сходить в магазин, it leaves doubt: "maybe not". – farfareast Jul 12 '16 at 20:52
1

What Olga said, plus, it depends on the form your parents used to used as an incentive for you to do something they would want you to - the perception of the field of usage of those two forms can vary then.

In general, I agree that "надо" sounds not only less formal, but also as if it was connected with outer causes, rather then with your inner perception of need.

0

надо means 'I have a need and it is not mine/it is for someone else's benefit, for I don't feel it myself'

нужно means roughly 'I have a need and it is mine/I want to satisfy it to my personal benefit, for I feel it myself', etc.

Historically, the former is likely to be explained as Supinum.

The difference has an exact lexical manifestation in Balto-Finnish languages *(e.g. Finnish quasi-ergative 'minun täytyy' VS 'tarvitsen').

It can be a result of a language contact and is therefore almost uncoceivable by most of native speakers.

Strictly speaking, both надо & нужно are forms of past tenses (participle/Supinum) of the set ending in n-consonant / d-consonant, althought I am not sure yet which one stands for what. Cf. with Swedish 'behövde' (and n-forms/d-forms for other verbs in this language), English 'needed', or Spanish 'debida'/'debido', etc. Cf. also with Sanskrit and Tochar.

Vasmer and Vinogradov suggesting its origin from OR надобѣ which originates from доба ("use, merit"), akin to добрый, удобный etc (quote from Quassnoi's comment- M.), yet give no explanation of the first part of the word на, which is either an IE or Germanic imperative from the verb meaning either 'to have' or 'to take'. Cf. Russian имя/иметь, or Ductch 'nemen'. It has survived in modern conversational Russian in the form of interjection на! (='here you are!'/'take[it]'!)

Thus, нужно/надо is historically the same construction as 'One has'to', also governing infinite form of the verb, like in English.

  • Vasmer and Chernykh both give explanations for this word (на!), which are very unlike yours. It's not an imperative, it's a pronominal interjection. Russian имя and иметь have nothing to do in common. May I ask what do you base your claims (which seem very strange to me) on? – Quassnoi Jan 17 '13 at 9:35
  • Comparative studies + pragmatical semantics. Could you pls provide a reference to Vasmer's or Chernykh's works? – Manjusri Jan 17 '13 at 9:37
  • etymolog.ruslang.ru – Quassnoi Jan 17 '13 at 9:40
  • Thanx. It also has an example of гнадобить <= надоба, and -ба is a collective/communicative suffix in Russian. Which proves my point. Downvoters are wrong (and I have already said everything I had to say about them). – Manjusri Jan 17 '13 at 11:35
  • Is etymology of words надо and нужно relevant to distinguish their contemporary usages? It seems to me that your discussion, however interesting, is not directly related to the question. Maybe you should move it to a chat or create a new question (if it is really a question, not a discussion, e.g. if there is something about the origin of надо or нужно one of you don't know and wishes to learn). – Olga Jan 17 '13 at 12:43
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RegDwight, Use "нужно" in those situations when you want to seem 1)more polite, 2)more educated, 3)more accurate.

Use "надо" if you want to seem 1)more relaxed 2)more down to earth or 3) when it sounds better

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