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In Отец не имеет прав на ребёнка., прав is in the genitive plural.

But in Все имеют недостатки, но не все - способности., способности is in the accusative plural.

Why is this the case, when both follow иметь and не?

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Technically, the case of noun may vary depending on the meaning of иметь (own, use, simply link-verb etc.). But in this particular case that's because of negation.

Consider, Отец имеет права на ребёнка (Accusative), but Отец не имеет прав на ребёнка (Genitive).

It's like this, because of the language history and incomplete replacement of Genitive by Accusative. The whole story is quite complicated and may confuse even native speakers, but for our example we may confine only to this: не иметь requires Genitive case.

You may find more following this link: Какой падеж нужен при отрицании?

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