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Which consonant in a cluster determines whether the other consonant(s) is/are voiced? For example, if there is зт, is it pronounced ст or зд?

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The latter one. зт is pronounced ст. Though I can't think of example, because if we are talking about prefixes раз-, без- they assume written forms рас-, бес- when preceding unvoiced consonants: разливать, but раскрывать, безликий but бесхитростный.

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  • I was just thinking of an example of voiced/unvoiced clusters (perhaps within a word itself). Thanks for your answer!
    – casey
    Feb 27 '16 at 15:31
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    If you need examples: без толку, ползти, замёрз-то are all pronounced with ст
    – J-mster
    Feb 29 '16 at 11:00

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