4

Reverso Context shows both of those words as "said" and Google Translate gives them slightly different meanings. So when do I use one over the other?

8

"Сказал" is just "said". It doesn't need explanation as this word can be used in everyday situations, both formal and informal.

"Заявили" means "proclaimed", "claimed" or "pronounced", also this verb is in plural form. Singular would be "заявил". This word is used when someone claims, refuses, protests something. Here are examples:

Делегация Соединённых Штатов заявила о нарушениях договора. // The delegation of the United Stated claimed there were violations of the agreement.

Корпорация заявила об увеличении объёмов производства. // The corporation announced increased production figures.

Я заявляю решительный протест! // I hereby lodge strongest protest!

Examples of colloquial use:

Ребёнок заявил, что не хочет есть овощи. // The child said he did not want to eat vegetables.

Он заявляет, что ты украл у него деньги. // He claims you have stolen some money from him.

See also: заявка, заявление, заявитель, заявленная стоимость

2

Where заявить and сказать are interchangeable at all, the former is usually media-speak for the latter. "State", though not an exact translation, is a similarly used English term (a spokesman for the company stated that...) You simply don't need заявить in day-to-day Russian, unless you specifically mean "declare".

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