Because prepositions act like clitics, they are pronounced as if the're part of the next word.Does that mean the vowels of the prepositions are also reduced to [ə] and [ɐ] and does this also apply to conjunctions?

So are these examples pronounced correctly?

на столе [nə] [stɐˈlʲe] на почте [nɐ] [ˈpot͡ɕtʲe]

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Yes, that's correct; reduction applies to prepositions as if they were part of the next word, and there's even a limited number of preposition-noun combinations where the preposition steals stress: пóд ноги (but: под ногáми), нá руку (but: на рукé).

(I have to correct what I originally wrote after this, and double-checking is welcome.)

It does not apply to conjunctions. Но is always [nо]; а is always [a]; что is always [ʂto], etc. However, in colloquial speech, the compound conjunctions то, что, то, чтобы and то, как and their oblique forms can be pronounced as one word, with stress on the first element: ['toʂtə], ['toʂtəbɨ], ['tokək]. Потому что without the comma is always pronounced as one word.

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