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There is an article "Choosing Natural Adjective Ladders" about ordered list of English adjectives describing quality, from Phenomenal to Abysmal. The list was received by survey.

Does a similar work exist for Russian?

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Yes, there is!
See Количественный анализ качественных прилагательных русского языка.
But be careful using these adjectives, some of them are colloquial or close to obscene.

Here is one of the lists they received.
It is an ordered set of 10 unordered sets of adjectives (levels), graded from the most "positive" words to the most "negative". All the words of one level perceived by respondents as about the same on the scale of "good" - "bad." Any of them (for example, the most commonly used in the language) can be selected as a typical representative of this level.

  1. фантастический, феноменальный, превосходный, восхитительный, волшебный, суперский, офигенный
  2. первоклассный, отменный, отличный, замечательный
  3. первосортный, сильный
  4. хороший, добротный
  5. недурной, неплохой,нормальный
  6. средний, так себе*
  7. посредственный, слабый, никакой
  8. плохой, жалкий, никчёмный, негодный
  9. дрянной, гадостный, ужасный
  10. говённый, дерьмовый, отвратительный, омерзительный

*This idiomatic expression is actually not an adjective, but often used by native speakers for describing mediocre quality.

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