Какая разница между вокзал и станция?
The usage differs due to the size of the station.
Вокзалis used for larger station buildings, while
станцияis used for small stops which may consist of only a platform and an overhang.
Additionally, the usage differs due to the type of the transport, or location of the stop.
Subway stops - are called
станция метро,but never
Passenger-train stops could be either
железнодорожный вокзал,depending on the size. Stops for loading/unloading freight trains are
Bus stops. All stops in a city and small stops outside of a city are called
автобусная остановка,large ones serving many buses are
автовокзал,anything in between is
Passenger-boat stops could be either
водный вокзал, речной вокзал, морской вокзалor
водная станция, depending on the size. Note that
водная станцияis also used for beach areas and / or a places that rent out recreational rowing boats.
Если оставаться в рамках "транспортного" контекста (не "орбитальная станция" и т.п.), то:
"Станция" - название места по его функции, например "железнодорожная станция" - место, где останавливаются поезда. "Вокзал" - это собственно комплекс зданий. Вокзал выполняет функцию станции (служит станцией).
Толковый словарь Ушакова:
СТА́НЦИЯ, станции, жен. (от лат. statio). 1. Пункт остановки на больших дорогах, почтовых трактах.
Словарь иностранных слов русского языка:
ВОКЗАЛ — 1) здание железнодорожной станции с залом для ожидающих поездов
Вокзал is a station building. By the way, in informal speech вокзал means the station itself (Поезд прибывает на Ленинградский вокзал Москвы — Train departures to Leningradskiy railway station of Moscow).
There are many fine points related to both of these words. In some contexts they may be used interchangeably, or a choice may be made depending on the context and the point of view. Now we won't bother ourselves with non-transportation usages of станция such as электростанция or станция переливания крови.
Станция in technical sense means a point where vehicles or trains start or complete their journeys, are shunted, split, joined etc.
When speaking of railroads, it is important to know that for a railway person there's a difference between поезд (train) as a unit of traffic and its physical implementation such as состав (consist), одиночный локомотив (solitary locomotive), сплотка локомотивов (a group of locomotives), дрезина, мотриса (railcars) or others. A consist is always a consist, a railcar is always a railcar, etc, but they all only become a train when the train dispatcher appoints it and gives it the order to start; and they are no longer a train once they arrived at destination. That's exactly what станция is for. A станция always has a few tracks, points, entry and exit (and possibly intermediate) semaphores and a signalbox. There's also a specialized type of станция called разъезд - that is a passing loop on single track line. You may ask, what about a simple platform near a straight stretch of track? Well, a Russian railway pro will tell you that that is not a станция, that's a платформа (if it has any passenger facilities) or an остановочный пункт (otherwise). Moreover, in some cases you can find out that sometimes a станция is so large that there is more than one платформа in its boundaries (eg. станция Подмосковная in Moscow, where local trains stop at платформа Гражданская and платформа Ленинградская). Without going into extremely fine points, that's all there is about станция as a railroad term.
In bus traffic, [авто]станция is also a place where bus routes start and finish. However, a rural bus route will usually have only one of its ends at a станция - the other will be a mere остановка (stop) in a remote village. What makes the difference is enough space for prolonged stopping and facilities for passengers and drivers. Soviet traditions of urban bus and tram planning usually also prescribe the creation of terminus stations (конечная станция) with facilities for drivers. In pre-GPS times their schedule keeping was also done there. Every route is then planned so that at least one of its ends is at such a terminus station.
The easiest situation is in metro - every stop is a станция, in both technical and informal contexts, although even here there's the ever-going controversy whether cross-platform interchanges should be counted as one or two.
In water transportation the word станция is usually not used. Here we use пристань for a single pier or порт for larger traffic hubs. In air transportation, it's аэродром (without a passenger building) or аэропорт.
Вокзал technically is the passenger building of a станция, порт or аэропорт. It often comes with some prefix: автовокзал, аэровокзал, речной вокзал, морской вокзал.
Now to everyday usage.
The fine points of difference between станция, платформа, разъезд, остановочный пункт are of no interest to most railway passengers; they use the word станция to denote most of them, making their railway-employed friends wince.
However, some of the stations are synecdochally called вокзал. A city dweller will use вокзал to denote the principal station of a railway line serving that city. Long-distance trains usually will only stop at these stations. For example, Moscow has 9 stations called вокзал, with 10 radii originating from them; long-distance trains in normal conditions never stop anywhere within the bounds of Moscow but at these stations. Most cities have only one вокзал.
A passenger travelling on a long-distance train (say, along the Trans-Siberian) has a different perspective. He will use the word вокзал to describe a particularly large station en route. For passengers travelling in a suburban train, вокзал is the terminus station in the regional capital.
This synecdochal usage also applies to bus and water transportation. However, аэровокзал is nowadays faded out of colloquial usage at all - even if we want to speak of the building itself, we'll say терминал or just здание аэропорта.
With metro, вокзал is only used very rarely in exalted newspaper reports praising the beauties of the new stations.
У слова "вокзал" есть 2 значения:
- здание на станции, где продаются билеты и ждут поезда пассажиры
- крупная железнодорожная станция с большим количеством пассажиров
"Станция" - более общее понятие: - станция метро (subway) - железнодорожная станция (railway station) - насосная станция (pumb station) ....