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In the sentence:

Моя подруга будет ужинать дома

what means дом to be in genitive? I actually expect it to be in prepositional case with some preposition like в, is that wrong?

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    It is an adverb, not a noun. Similar to "home" in "go home". – Anixx Dec 17 '16 at 10:54
  • Like in English—at home vs in/at A home—home vs. to A home. We do the same sort of thing when we talk about our houses – VCH250 Dec 17 '16 at 11:22
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    On a side note, this isn't genitive but a really, really old instrumental—one that was already extinct in Proto-Slavic by the time it started diverging, except in a handful of those adverbialised forms such as дома — or вчера, from вечер. – Nikolay Ershov Dec 19 '16 at 6:27
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    I find this kind of question interesting. I like to hear answers which go beyond "It is an adverb." While these words may function as adverbs, they clearly are not adverbial in form. Since the questioners are asking for an identification of the morphological form, saying it is an adverb and leaving it at that is a non-answer. – David42 Dec 19 '16 at 16:53
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    This is locative, not genitive. – Alex B. Jan 2 '17 at 4:45
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Моя подруга будет ужинать дома.

ДОма (with the stress on the first syllable) in this sentence is not a noun, but an adverb which indicates a place. It corresponds to English "home" (at home).

I am at home.I came home.

Some adverbs were historically formed from other word classes:дома, весной (from nouns), попусту (from adjectives), вдвое (from numeral), etc.

В доме would mean inside the house.

Погода прохладная, чай будем пить в доме, не в саду.

Some historical background.

Переходом из других частей речи образованы многие наречия. Так, можно отметить наречия, образованные переосмыслением

— существительных (дома, весной),

— прилагательных (попусту, в открытую),

— деепричастий (сидя, лёжа),

— числительных (вдвое).

Необходимо понимать, что переход слова из одной части речи в другую — процесс исторический. С точки зрения современном состояния языка (с синхронической точки зрения) все эти слова образованы при помощи суффикса или приставки и суффикса, омонимичного окончанию существительного, прилагательного или числительного, а также формообразующему суффиксу деепричастной формы глагола, например:

зим-ой ← зима, леж-а ← лежать, по-пуст-у ← пустой,дом-а –дом.

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    You might be interested in this answer on English Stackexchange: english.stackexchange.com/a/111430/100546 I particularly noted John Lawler's terminology. He refers to "home" as "an adverbial prepositional phrase that has been stripped of its prepositions and determiners". By these description he acknowledges the morphological identity of "home" as a noun while explaining its adverbial use. By asserting that "ДОма" is all adverb and no noun you attempt to gloss over this. With "ДОма" obviously an inflected form of "дом", this attempted simplification confuses rather than enlightens. – David42 Dec 19 '16 at 17:21
  • Sorry, having bad connection,couldn't translate – V.V. Dec 19 '16 at 19:29

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