In the Russian language we pronounce the written word считать differently, с-читать или щщитать, depending on what is expressed. (they are heteronyms, also known as heterophones, for English it's here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Initial-stress-derived_noun and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heteronym_(linguistics) ).

If we desribe in Russian the picture:

An electromagnetic head reading data from a magnetic tape.
Электромагнитая головка считывает данные с магнитной ленты.

we pronounce с-читать with 2 short sounds. One more example:

The head can read out data from a magnetic tape.
Данная головка может считать данные с магнитной ленты.

When the picture is

one thinks about something, that … ; he takes into account something    
cчитается, что … ; он считает, [e.g.: надо + глагол]

then we use the pronunciation щщитать with a single long sound:

Я считаю, что мы достигли своей цели. 
Он может считать, что достиг цели. 
Он считает, надо достигнуть цели.

There is plenty of examples for the latter, sitting right in the google searching output https://www.google.com/search?q=%22%D1%8F+%D1%89%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D1%8E%22 , usually written in twitter-dritter-style or joke-style grammar (sounding utter illiterate otherwise).

For those who doubt in pronunciation of the heterophone считать as с-читать there is a search query: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=считыватель

Any other heteronyms / heterophones in Russian?
The 5 others most frequently used heteronyms / heterophones in Russian?

  • 2
    Found one example: конечно. If it means "of course, certainly", then ч is pronounced like ш. But if it means "finitely" (adverb or short adjective from конечный ("finite")), then ч is pronounced as written.
    – Lara
    Jan 2, 2017 at 22:28
  • 2
    I can think of one more example. It may be considered somewhat artificial because the stress moves as well, but nevertheless: "Слово или выражение, подвергнутое нарóчному искажению носителем языка, владеющим литературной нормой..." — "ШН". "Нáрочному было велено нигде на задерживаться" — "ЧН". (Feel free to up-vote any of my answers elsewhere. When I am at 3000 I will be able to re-open closed questions without having to refer to moderators :) )
    – Avi Gordon
    Jan 3, 2017 at 1:10
  • 2
    I have one more example: полого as an adverb or as an adjective, where it's pronounced as "полого" or "полово", respectively. Compare: Поляна полого спускалась к лесу vs внутри полого цилиндра.
    – zipirovich
    Jan 7, 2017 at 20:12
  • 1
    @zipirovich, nice example! Found one more: words тест ("test") and тесто ("dough") are written identically in all cases except for nominative and accusative (ошибка в тесте -- сосиска в тесте, etc.). But pronunciation is different: in the first one т is not palatalized, and e sounds like э, while the second one is pronounced as written.
    – Lara
    Jan 11, 2017 at 18:30
  • 1
    @Lara: Yes, I know! Why didn't I post it myself? Когда после 14 дет жизни в Штатах мы приехали в отпуск в Москву, я постоянно заказывал (для детей) сосиску в тэсте. Детям было смешно. :-)
    – zipirovich
    Jan 11, 2017 at 18:34