There are many verbs based on the root
-гляд-, which all mean something similar to "look at/glance" (
взгляд), and are among the most commonly used words of the Russian language.
Because of this, they are all blurred together in my mind, despite the fact that they are seemingly not used interchangeably.
Does anyone have any suggestions for understanding and/or remembering the distinctions between these words?
Question: In particular, my confusion boils down to the following two core issues:
1. What is the difference between the forms
2. What is the difference in meaning between the prefixes
вы- for these verbs?
Any answer that addresses only 1. and 2. above would be sufficient.
Attempt: For 1. my guess is that the "original" imperfective/perfective pair was
-нуть seems to be a perfectivizing suffix. But then for some reason, instead of simply appending prefixes to this same imperfective/perfective pair, in some of the derived verbs, the
глядеть was used as the perfective form, thus requiring the creation of a lexeme which was an imperfectivized version:
глядывать (note that I am deliberately saying lexeme, and not word).
Thus there seem, in general, to be two types of imperfective/perfective pairs associated with the root
However, for 2. I genuinely have no idea. The noun
взгляд seems to mean exactly the same thing as the root
-гляд-, so I do not see at all how turning
взгляд into the verbs
взглядывать/взглянуть adds anything in terms of meaning compared to the original
глядеть/глянуть. (Also the imperfective/perfective pair
взглядывать/взглянуть does not follow either of the two patterns,
(prefix)+глядеть/(prefix)+глянуть, I identified above, confusing me even further.)
Also, why was the perfective form
глядеть ever necessary if there was already a simpler perfective form of
глядеть built by prefixization (
поглядеть)? Also, in addition to
поглядеть, which all make sense somewhat as perfective forms of
глядеть, how or why is
взглянуть also a perfective form of
глядеть (according to Wiktionary)?
поглядывать, in addition to just
глядеть, is also an imperfective form of
вы- forms make absolutely no sense to me; not only do they not seem to mean anything different compared to
глядеть/глянуть=глядеть/поглядеть=глядеть/взглянуть, but there are all three forms:
выглянуть, something which seemingly should be impossible, since there are only two aspects in Russian, and not three, but according to Wiktionary,
выглядеть is both imperfective and perfective. Even worse, both
выглянуть are perfective forms of
выглядывать, again according e.g. to Wiktionary.
Most of these words seem to be derived by adding prefixes and the suffix
-ся which in most cases I kind of understand, to the above three forms (note that I am saying words -- the third is clearly not a separate individual word, I am saying form, i.e. a lexeme). Thus there is no need to explain all of the prefixes
за-, etc. and how they apply in this case, nor any need to explain the suffix
-ся. As explained in 2., the only prefixes which I am unable to distinguish in this context are
вз- - neither seem to add any meaning compared to the unprefixed lexemes