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I've noticed a couple of patterns in regards to forming nouns from verbs.

1) Removing the -ть from verbs ending in -бить/быть, -вить, чать and -ять and adding -тие (for example: разбить --> разбитие, закрыть --> закрытие). *However, I've noticed that there are some exceptions with suffix -ние (e.g. Обожать --> обожание).

2) removing -ть from -дать verbs (e.g. выдать --> выдача)

Can anyone help clear up the -ние / -тие distinction from the first question or help me work out simple formulas with remove verbal stems and adding suffixes? Also, if you also know any way of formulating adjectives from either verbs or nouns I'd also appreciate this.

Thanks!

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    I doubt there are some rule one can memorize, unfortunately you just have to remember both noun and verb. – shabunc Mar 5 '17 at 20:15
  • Perhaps -ние is imperfective and -тие is perfective – jwalker Mar 6 '17 at 6:36
  • @jwalker How can a noun be perfective or imperfective? – Abakan Mar 6 '17 at 14:33
  • Other examples to confuse you: бить - битьё, рвать - рвение (also рваньё), брать - взятие. – ttaaoossuuuu Mar 7 '17 at 7:47
  • @Taosique Yep, it was just a quick guess, feel free to improve it or disprove it. And here's alternative one: -ние for a process and -тие for result. – jwalker Mar 7 '17 at 8:20
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It may work the other way around. If you see a noun with one of those endings, then you know that is derived from a verb.

The nouns were derived from verbs over a long period of time in different locations. That's why the patterns are slightly different. There is nothing in Russian language that would have prevented you from taking a verb "обожать" some centuries ago and make nouns "обожатие", or "обожача", instead of "обожание." For some long forgotten reason only one of those forms stayed in the language, but not the others. For example, there is an archaic word "выданье" which has a meaning similar to "выдача", but currently has a connotation of "to betroth a daughter".

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Ние (нье) or Тие (тье) they're formed with Past passive participle of the perfective verbs, if the past passive participle of the verb ends in "нный", the verb noun is ние, if the past passive participle of the verb ends in "тый", the verb noun is тие, examples:

  1. Простить / прощённый / прощение
  2. Описать / описанный / описание
  3. Открыть / открытый / открытие, and so on.

All of them "ние / тие" decline as nouns.

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