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The phrase is: "Часто днём бегу в спортзал или в бассейн".

If the author wants to emphasize on the action rather than where he does the action, he uses the places in nominative? I would expect from what I learned something similar to Я часто бегу в спортзале или в бассейне.

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    It is clearer with a feminine noun: они живут в Москве = they live in Moscow, он хочет ехать в Москву = he wants to go to Moscow. – KCd Mar 18 '17 at 3:11
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To describe location where the action is performed, i.e. to answer the question Где? (Where?), you need a construction "в/на + noun in prepositional case".

Я бегаю в спортзале. Он плавает в бассейне. Я гуляю на улице. Птица сидит на дереве.

I run at the gym. He swims at the swimming pool. I walk in the street. A bird sits on the tree.

And if you want to describe direction of an action, i.e. to answer the question Куда? (Where to?), you need a construction "в/на + noun in accusative case".

Я иду в спортзал. Он бежит в бассейн. Я выхожу на улицу. Кошка лезет на дерево.

I am going to the gym. He is running to the swimming pool. I go out into the street. A cat is climbing the tree.

Your example belongs to the second type (direction), that's why the nouns are in accusative (which is equal to nominative for these exact words).

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The phrase Часто днём бегу в спортзал или в бассейн means a transition (translative) state emphasising the direction whereto a speaker is headed.

The phrase Часто днём бегу (better: бегаю) в спортзале или в бассейне means the location where the action of running is taking place.

The issue itself deals with three non-explicit categories of translativity, existential state and evidentiality/non-evidentiality, which I have explained in a response to your other question.

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