Why is the adjective "главный" in neuter gender in the following sentence?
результат are masculine.
главное не метод, а результат.
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Here an adjective "главный" becomes a noun (the substantivation). The neuter form is chosen because "the main thing" (which it stands for) is a pure abstraction. It could also be, for example, "Главное не победа, а участие" - still neuter gender.
But of course the gender matters if you're talking about human beings or animals. For example, "I'm the boss" could be either "Главный здесь я" (masc.) or "Главная здесь я" (fem.).
It's a nominalized adjective, similar to those in English "orange is the new black", "eat fresh", "bowl of red" etc. It acts as a subject in this sentence, and, therefore, does not have to agree in gender with the objects.
Modern Russian uses sg. neuter to form nominalized adjectives describing abstract or collective concepts: былое ("bygones"), приданое ("dowry"), второе ("main course") etc.
Old Russian and Church Slavonic used pl. neuter for this purpose, ending in -ая in nominative: вселенная; преисподняя; святая святых; прочая, прочая, прочая etc.
The word "главное" in this sentence plays the part of a noun in the meaning "the most important in general" and is used in the neuter gender. This meaning is mentioned in some dictionaries (Кузнецов Толковый словарь and Малый академический словарь)
Гла́вное, -ого; ср. Несколько слов о самом главном.
When "главное" is a subject and there is no verb (a copular be) we put a dash after it.
Главное – не метод,а результат. Главное – люди. Главное – не опоздать на поезд.
As a subject it doesn't depend on other words.