If I search the Web for those exact phrases, in quotation marks, virtually all hits appear to be copied from the 1897 census. This suggests to me that these phrases are not naturally used in Russian, but were coined by the census administrators. On the other hand, the similar phrase государственные крестьяне occurs in many different contexts on the Web, but appears to always refer to a state-owned serf, a status abolished in 1866.
The 1897 census applies крестьянин из государственных and крестьянка из государственных not only to people born before 1866, where they might possibly mean former state serf, but it also applies these phrases to people born long after 1866, including infants born shortly before the census was taken.
Update: Is there any significance to the fact the census takers wrote крестьянин из государственных instead of the more common государственные крестьяне? Does their phrasing convey a sense that this is a slightly different status, or is it simply an alternative way to say the same thing?