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I am told to use propositional case with the names of the months to define time.

However, I am confused as I can't seem to find how. For example, how did Сентябрь becomes в Сентябре? Декабрь to в Декабре? Май to в Мае? Август to в Августе? Right?

May I know how to construct this? Or is it just simply change the endings into <<е>>?

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  1. If the month name ends with Й or Ь, remove the last letter.
  2. Add the ending -е.
  3. Add the preposition в.

Note that month names are not capitalised in Russian.

  • Янва́рь - в январе́
  • Май - в ма́е
  • А́вгуст - в а́вгусте.

In январе́, феврале́, сентябре́, октябре́, ноябре́ and декабре́ the stress shifts to the ending. For other months it stays put.

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  • отлично! - я совсем забыл упомянуть, что это не просто добавление -е – shabunc Jun 14 '17 at 14:26
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Check out, for instance, following reference, where you can find a lot of information about Russian prepositional. Here's a quote:

Время и условие

Кроме пространственных значений предложный падеж может выражать значение Времени: в детстве, в мае, на прошлой неделе, на рассвете, при царе, при встрече, при каждом удобном случае, по приезде.

So, to answer your question, you use prepositional with moths when you saying when - so "в январе", "в феврале", "в марте" - and so on - luckily they all are inclined the same way - so indeed all end with "-e".

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