I found these from the instrumental case and they are in brackets such as : Армией (-ею)

  • 1
    it's the obsolete form
    – shabunc
    Jun 24, 2017 at 8:51

2 Answers 2


If a feminine noun in the Instrumental case singular ends in "-ой", "-ёй" or "-ей" then it also has an alternative form (also the Instrumental case singular, of course) ending in "-ою", "-ёю" or "-ею" respectively. This is a regular stuff, so not all dictionaries even mention it.

However, in the modern language the forms ending in "-ою"/"-ёю"/"-ею" are rarely used except poetry and such.

Also feminine nouns ending (in the Nominative case) in the non-stressed "-ия", such as mentioned above "армия", are almost never put into this "alternative form", because of a discordance.

  • not only -ия - also портупЕЯ. i'd say any vowel plus "я"
    – Arioch
    Jun 26, 2017 at 8:57
  • @Arioch Well, all these words are at least formally right in modern Russian. So we're talking rather about how often they are used. And in fact "-еею" is not so unexpected, e.g. "Аллеею уродливых берез\\Мы шли вблизи сурового забора..." (Ф. Сологуб).
    – Matt
    Jun 26, 2017 at 10:15
  • that is because of poetry. Here uncommon -e-e-ю was explicitly selected to fill the required number of "syllable slots" in the rhyme :-D
    – Arioch
    Jun 26, 2017 at 11:35
  • @Arioch So what? I explicitly mentioned poetry in my answer. While in an ordinary speech, say, водою or травою is about as rare, as аллеею. BTW. The number of syllables is the easiest thing to match in poetry. Here Sologub was much more interested in an assonance.
    – Matt
    Jun 26, 2017 at 12:18

While @Matt is right and those forms became obsolete at the end of XIX century, however, there are some forms that you still can encounter it in casual usage. It's very rare, it wouldn't be oversimplification to say - always stick to new endings (-ой, -ей, -ью instead of -ою, -ею, -ию), still, don't be surprised if you'll heard:

  • Ты с головою, что ли, не дружишь совсем? (instead of c головой)
  • Ты куда ты с непокрытой головою на мороз?
  • Ты рукою себе помог!
  • C дядею пока посиди, мы через час будем.

It's difficult to google this though because, apart from this being rare , in media this just won't be acceptable and in written language native speaker would just use the correct form.

Also, once again, not to contradict Matt - this is only about very small set of short popular words, like тётя, дядя, рука, нога, река etc. With армией you'll never hear армиею.

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