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У меня (такое) чувство, что/будто я ...

У меня (такое) ощущение, что/будто я ...

У меня (такое) впечатление, что/будто я ...

I cannot figure out on my own how these three synonyms differ in usage and meaning.

Incidentally, I wonder if you can drop the word "такое" without altering the meaning of the sentence?

Also, how does the choice between "что" and "будто" affect the meaning of the subordinate clause? Do you use "будто" to describe a more unlikely situation?

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    "Feeling", "sensation", "impression" are in fact quite accurate translations, mostly conveying the usage nuances of the corresponding Russian words.
    – Quassnoi
    Mar 17 '18 at 22:38
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Чувство stands a feeling (so, something like "I have a feeling as if I...", впечатление is an impression ( ~"I have an impression that"). In fact, впечатление is a calque from French impression.

In my opinion it's only ощущение what is somewhat tricky to explain in this context.

It's indeed most usually translated as a feeling, as well as it's indeed synonymous to чувство in many, if not if, cases. Had I have to translate it to English I most likely use something like - "I have a sense that". In fact, чувство corresponds to ощущение pretty much like "to feel" and "to sense" in English.

"To feel" is more about emotions, to sense is more about biological aspect though, of course is used figuratively as well.

One can say "Мои чувства к тебе более чем серьёзны" but never "мои ощущения к тебе серьёзны".

Plus, again, exactly like in English there are some phrases where you should just memorize which of these verbs should be used. Most obvious example would be: while ощущать боль is grammatically valid, we say чувствовать боль.

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  1. чувство and ощущение as their meaning suggests refer to affective sphere, впечатление - to intellectual sphere, nevertheless in this construct these three are largely synonymous and interchangeable. Except that in my opinion впечатление has a greater tendency towards objectivity as an expression of conclusion as opposed to a gut or an irrational feeling, and a greater tendency of being followed with что in the subordinate sentence.

  2. такое can more readily be omitted from phrases with ощущение than from those with the other two words, as their absence makes the phrase lacking.

However when a sentence begins with такое and lacks у меня

Такое чувство/ощущение/впечатление, что/будто я

it cannot be omitted but in case of чувство/ощущение can be substituted with есть.

  1. Do you use "будто" to describe a more unlikely situation?

Yes, or less realistic.

Also будто is much more than что prone to be used with the past tense, at least такое у меня впечатление

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