Чувство stands a feeling (so, something like "I have a feeling as if I...",
впечатление is an impression ( ~"I have an impression that"). In fact, впечатление is a calque from French
In my opinion it's only
ощущение what is somewhat tricky to explain in this context.
It's indeed most usually translated as a
feeling, as well as it's indeed synonymous to
чувство in many, if not if, cases. Had I have to translate it to English I most likely use something like - "I have a sense that".
чувство corresponds to
ощущение pretty much like "to feel" and "to sense" in English.
"To feel" is more about emotions, to sense is more about biological aspect though, of course is used figuratively as well.
One can say "Мои чувства к тебе более чем серьёзны" but never "мои ощущения к тебе серьёзны".
Plus, again, exactly like in English there are some phrases where you should just memorize which of these verbs should be used. Most obvious example would be: while
ощущать боль is grammatically valid, we say