I have been studying Russian recently and I have come across a problem that I have been trying to resolve for some time now which involves the softening of consonants.
I understand that there are certain vowels that indicate whether a consonant succeeding it would be hard or soft, for example the vowel 'e' would indicate that the consonant after it would soften while an 'a' would indicate that the consonant after it would harden (and of course, 'ь' is the most obvious indicator that a consonant preceding it would soften).
I also understand that vowels and consonants come in pairs, so in frames of two characters both must either be hard or soft but not both. However, I have been trying to find a concise table that would provide transliterations of what consonants would sound like when softened.
I know that 'т' sounds similar to 'ц' when softened, but with more odd examples such as 'л' I am lost. I know that there are numerous sound recordings of words with softened and hardened characters, but as a beginner to this language it is hard to pick up the subtleties.
All of the online Russian learning resources I have been to have so far only been stating the groups of vowels that harden or soften characters, not listing how the consonants sound or are transliterated when softened.
Therefore, I would be much obliged if anyone could help me in this matter.