It has been confusing me the fact that a few verbs have participles which, according to textbooks, normally don't match a particular verb aspect (perfective or imperfective).

For example, гореть (imp.) and сгореть (pf.). The past passive participle is normally formed from the perfective aspect, however the word горелый exists.

Another example is резать (imp.), разрезать (pf.). According to some dictionaries, the word резанный exists.

Apparently there are also past adverbs for imperfective verbs, like ждав instead of подождав, according to cooljugator.com.

So, how far can we use past participles and past adverbs with imperfective verbs?

  • That's right, thanks for the amendment. I meant something which got burned down, like trees in a wild fire.
    – swrutra
    May 28, 2018 at 15:42
  • Additionally, "режанный" seems to be a typo.Did you mean резаный?
    – Vitaly
    May 28, 2018 at 15:46
  • you're right once again. I transcribed it wrongly from the Толковый словарь русского языка embedded in my Mac.
    – swrutra
    May 28, 2018 at 16:04
  • That is "not a bug, but a feature". The perfective aspect denotes the completion of the process. Say, if some town... Okay, if some house burned PERFECTLY - it burned down to the ground, to the ashes, no one can use it any more. It is no more a house. That would be "сгоревший дом" - once there was a house, but no more, it perished in the perfected=completed fire. At the same time, "горелый" is imperfective, it denotes that while fire was, and it affected the house in a clearly visible way, still the destruction process was not perfected and house remains, damaged but somewhat useable still
    – Arioch
    May 29, 2018 at 12:02

2 Answers 2


Russian syntax: aspects of modern Russian syntax and vocabulary has a good description—

-Ignore the notes (sorry, it's my personal copy)

(F. M. Borras, Reginald Frank Christian)

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The Wikipedia article on participles doesn't emphasize the fact of past passive participles being mainly derived from perfective verbs, and in its examples lists two imperfective ones with a potential for a 3d one печёный

[C]традательные причастия могут образовываться только от переходных глаголов.

Причастия страдательного залога прошедшего времени образуются с помощью суффиксов -нн- (от глаголов на -ать: читанный, потерянный), -енн- (от глаголов на -ить и -чь: испеченный), -т- (от односложных глаголов: мятый).

Также не от всех глаголов образуются в русском языке страдательные причастия прошедшего времени.

Indeed some forms of past passive participles may sound a little unusual, like терянный, but if context absolutely compels to using them, they can be employed and understood, for example

Этот телефон у меня уже сто раз терянный и найденный - This phone of mine has already been about a dozen times lost and found.

У меня огород 2 года стоит не копанный - My veggie garden has for 2 years gone non-spaded.

Considering the statement according to which past passive participles derive from transitive verbs and the list of suffixes pertaining to past participles, it appears that words formed with the suffix - л- (горелый, спелый, прелый, лежалый, вялый) can't be classed as participles.

I think they're adjectives, however indeed their link to intransitive verbs is apparent: гнилой - гнить, умелый - уметь, усталый - устать, отсталый - отстать, запоздалый - запоздать, беглый - бегать, талый - таять, светлый - светить (here the quality is ascribed not to the subject but to the object despite incongruence with the verb's character), and even смелый i believe is linked to сметь.

Strangely i've managed to find only one site where they're mentioned and there they're listed as adjectives.

  • Прилагательные, образованные от глаголов, с суффиксом –л-. Например: обнищалый, опустелый, прошлый.

According to some dictionaries, the word резанный exists.

My life experience confirms as much. And the phraseologism

Орать как резанный

Ждав must be archaic and sounds awkward by modern standards. In modern language ожидая will be rather used instead. However it's no substitute for подождав due to aspect difference. Both have their use.

The Wikipedia article on past adverb states:

несовершенный — обозначает настоящее и прошедшее времена. Образуется от глаголов несовершенного вида с помощью суффиксов а (-я) и отвечает на вопрос «что делая?»

So imperfective past adverbs derive from imperfective verbs by appendage of the -(а)я suffix and are very much in use.

  • So... judging by your answer, I should just ignore "ждав". But -ая is the suffix of the present adverb, if I'm not mistaken. So the present adverb in -ая must be taken as exclusive to imperfective verbs, while the past adverb in -в is exclusive to perfective verbs. If it were not for your answer, I would feel tempted to ask whether ждав could be used as a replacement for the non-existent "ждая". But apparently, there's no way other than looking for a variant of the verb, like ожидать instead of ждать.
    – swrutra
    May 28, 2018 at 20:36
  • indeed, what you've named past adverb (apparently meaning perfective adverbial participle) don't have temporal aspect, only the aspect of completeness, likewise their opposites the IMperfective adverbial participles, therefore they are applicable to all tenses. Thus Они беседУЮТ, ожидая автобуса / Они беседОВАЛИ, ожидая автобуса / Они БУДУТ беседовать, ожидая автобуса all are grammatically correct May 28, 2018 at 20:58
  • and vice versa Побеседовав, они пожАЛИ друг другу руки / Побеседовав, они пожимаЮТ друг другу руки / Побеседовав, они пожМУТ друг другу руки May 28, 2018 at 21:02
  • adverbial participles of reflexive verbs are formed with suffixes -(а)ясь for imperfective (and provisionally for perfective) and -вшись for perfective May 28, 2018 at 21:04
  • Some sources use other terminology. They call those adverbs "gerunds", being the -ая form the present gerund, and the -в form the past gerund. Делая translates as "doing", while сделав translates as "upon having done", if I understood correctly.
    – swrutra
    May 28, 2018 at 21:43

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