One of the first things I got to know when I started learning Russian is that the preposition "of" does not exist in Russian. Or at least, so tell beginner-level textbooks.
As I kept studying, I realized that one cannot just use the genitive in many contexts. There are the prepositions с, из, от which denote origin and, unfortunately, are not interchangeable. I'm afraid that I need to learn case-by-case where to employ each one.
So, let me know if I got the right preposition in the following examples.
Из is used when referring:
- the material something is made of: "стол сделан из дерева".
- the starting point of a trip, if that same point is denoted by the preposition в, were it the destination : "из Москвы на Кавказ", because "с Кавказа в Москву".
- Moreover, из is normally used when the point of departure is a city, country, region or other kind of artificial geography: из города, из Саратовской Области, из России.
- a sample from an assortment: "один из моих любимых блюд".
- the starting stage of a transition/transformation, if the verb denoting the transition is followed by the preposition в: "Из деревни превратиться в город".
С is used with:
- the starting point of a trip, if that same point is denoted by the preposition на, were it the destination: "с Кавказа в Москву" because "из Москвы на Кавказ";
- Moreover, с denotes departure from natural geography, such as mountains, islands, planets and stars. "С Урала на Тихий Океан", "с равнины на гору", "с Земли на Луну".
- when referring to a starting point in time: "со среды", "с августа", "с 2000 года", "с шести часов вечера".
- the means of sending a message: "писать с телефона".
- the starting stage of a transition/transformation denoted by a verb followed by the preposition на: "погода с холодной сменилась на жаркую".
От is used with:
- the cause of a negative consequence: "умереть от холода".
- the cause of an inadvertent action: "от смущения она разбила кувшин с молоком".
- the starting point of a trip having its arrival point denoted by до, when measuring distance or travel time: "поездка от Москвы до Петербурга занимает 13 часов", "расстояние от Москвы до Петербурга - 700км".
- the symptoms a medicine is supposed to get people rid of: "лекарство от кашеля"
These are the general usages I know so far. There are however specific usages which do not seem to fit the general criteria.
The expressions "с каждого дня", "день ото дня", "изо дня в день" all mean the same, right?
The last surprise I stumbled upon was "Алине Загитовой вручили ключ от квартиры в Ижевске". Is ключ in the same league as лекарство, in the sense that the purpose a thing is made for is indicated by от, rather than the genitive alone or the preposition для? Are there any other words followed by от indicating what something was designed for?
I did not include examples such as "сбить с тольку", "сойти с ума", "изо всех сил", because these all are set expressions which seem independent from general grammar.
Is the expression "от себя" (for "push!") a set expression too, or does it fit any rule for designating the starting point of something?