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Еще даже не вечер, а ты уже выпиваешь.

Еще даже не вечером, а ты уже выпиваешь.

I'm wondering if I should use the noun "вечер" or the adverb "вечером" to express the idea of "not in the evening". Incidentally, should I see "вечером" as the instrumental noun instead?

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    Еще даже не вечер , а ты уже выпиваешь///Мы с тобой выпьем, но вечером, а не сейчас///Ты уже выпиваешь, а ведь пока еще только день, а не вечер – Elena Jul 22 '18 at 12:53
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To sound natural, you'd want simplier expressions "ещё не вечер" and "ещё день".

The 1st one, besides "it's (relatively) early yet [to/for something]", has an alternative meaning in colloquial, "there's yet time [to/for something]".

The 2nd one means "it's daytime yet".

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The first phrase can be translated as "it's not even evening and you are already drinking." It's constructed pretty much similar to it's English counterpart and вечер is in the nominative case.

The second phrase is ungrammatical - you are confusing вечером (which as you mentioned as an adverb) and the noun вечер. The adverb stands for in the evening.

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We are omitting words, mostly the verb to be (is).

"Ещё не вечер" means "[NOW IT IS] not an evening yet"

"Ещё не вечером" is just incorrect. We can say "Вечером" (In the evening), "Не вечером" (Not in the evening), but we it doesn't match with "Ещё".

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