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1) I've somehow managed to blunder my way into a management position.

= Я как-то умудрился (???) ...

In English, we often use the structure "verb of motion + one's way + preposition" such as:

2) I've been so fortunate to work my way up to where I am now.

3) We inched our way across the room, hardly daring to breathe.

4) I'm not too keen on travelling to Prague, as the thought of pushing my way through a crowd of tourists doesn't exactly appeal to me.

5) I sneaked my way out of the office earlier than usual.

I wonder if there is some fixed structure in Russian roughly corresponding to this English construction. How do Russian speakers commonly express these ideas?

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I don't think a full equivalent exists. Here's how I would render your examples:

I've somehow managed to blunder my way into a management position.

Каким-то образом я умудрился оказаться в начальниках.

OR: Меня каким-то образом занесло в начальники.

I've been so fortunate to work my way up to where I am now.

Мне повезло доработать до моей текущей должности.

We inched our way across the room, hardly daring to breathe.

Мало-помалу мы протиснулись на другой конец комнаты, едва дыша.

...pushing my way through a crowd ...

толкаться в толпе / расталкивать толпу

I sneaked my way out of the office earlier than usual.

Я улизнул из офиса раньше обычного.

One can also replace улизнул with the colloquial слинял.

There is the expression проложить себе дорогу/путь чем-либо but it's too bookish:

  • Сын ремесленника, он начал службу с должности писца и упорным трудом проложил себе путь к вершинам немецкой почтовой иерархии.

  • Смело, товарищи, в ногу,
    Духом окрепнем в борьбе
    В царство свободы дорогу
    Грудью проложим
    себе

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  • 1) also пробиться (в начальникИ) – Баян Купи-ка Aug 20 '18 at 10:14
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    i think 2) is misconstrued, it's about career rather than tenure (which is connoted by доработать), so my translation would be дорасти до – Баян Купи-ка Aug 20 '18 at 10:17
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    I'd say that "слинял" is more daring and less sneaky than "улизнул". – Alissa Aug 20 '18 at 11:03
  • @Alissa Hi. As you noted, the "sneak my way out" in this context is not so much about "tiptoeing my way out" as about "rather boldly shirking". So is "слинять" better suited? – Con-gras-tue-les-chiens Aug 20 '18 at 12:26
  • in 2) besides дорасти до also дослужиться до fits well, but the verb itself isn't very popular nowadays, unfortunately, perhaps because semantic link of the word служба with job is all but lost – Баян Купи-ка Aug 20 '18 at 13:18

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