Некоторые слова в зависимости от рода имеют разный смысл, например, "машинист" и "машинистка" — это совершенно разные профессии. Есть ли название у такого языкового феномена?
There's no specific term a single word one can use however there are some related terminology. Generally speaking this is a phenomena of
gender-related semantic differences - when grammatical gender affects the way perceive the word. Technically nothing stops a woman from being called
машинистка and riding trains or
генеральша to rule an army however de-facto there exist a shift in meaning because of which when we think of
машинистка we picture to ourselves woman typing.
When one word has positive connotation and it's counterpart has negative this differentiation is called
gender-related semantic polarization (in Russian I've seen
семантическая полярность or
семантическая поляризация). In Russian one example of such polarization would be the pair
стервец where "стервец" is way more neutral than "стерва".
In Russian-language articles I've never encountered specific dedicated term however once I've seen
ложная гендерная парность.
UPD: I figured out that on English SE they sometimes come up with their own suggestion if no relevant term has been found. So after some investigation I'm suggesting following term -
квазифеминитив. So, the word
машинистка would be a
машинистка would be
пара с квазифеминитивом.