I'm wondering when to use one or the other, as at least based on their English translations, they are hardly distinguishable.
Одежда is any clothing in general (usually except "underwear" which is "(нижнее) бельё").
Платье solely means a female dress (see images) in modern Russian. And only occasionally, in some archaic and/or poetic contexts, you'll find it used for whatever wear/dress (e.g. "новое платье короля").