I'm wondering when to use one or the other, as at least based on their English translations, they are hardly distinguishable.
Одежда is any clothing in general (usually except "underwear" which is "(нижнее) бельё").
Платье solely means a female dress (see images) in modern Russian. And only occasionally, in some archaic and/or poetic contexts, you'll find it used for whatever wear/dress (e.g. "новое платье короля").
1Interestingly, a wardrobe is "платяной шкаф", even though their use is not meant to be exclusive to women. :D Sep 18, 2018 at 17:01
3"платяной шкаф" - indeed, and this is exactly the legacy of this older much wider meaning of "платье" (and probably because of that "платяной шкаф" also sounds quite archaic today - I believe most people would prefer to say "шкаф для одежды" or simply "шкаф" instead. But that could just my subjective observation - more research needed :) Sep 18, 2018 at 17:09
1While "одежда" doesn't mean "underwear", "без одежды" in some context could mean "naked, without underwear too".– DmitriySep 18, 2018 at 20:40
2@Con-gras-tue-les-chiens платяной шкаф is indeed quite rare nowadays, there's another word sounding similar to wardrobe which is гардероб both as a place and as a collection, not sure how common it is, but i use it Sep 18, 2018 at 21:10
1одёжка (from одёжа, which isn't a part of modern vocabulary) is not quite the same as одежда, besides the fact that it's a diminutive form of одежда, usually it means A) one piece of clothing to the exclusion of pants and headwear + B) special type of clothing, for special purpose for example a dog clothing could be called одёжка, in the meaning of одежда it's mainly features in some proverbs Sep 19, 2018 at 21:10