Which one is correct and why?

"Это очень важно для любого человека, живущего в христианскую эру"


"Это очень важно для любого челoвека, живущего в христианской эре"


The grammatical case (Accusative) in the first sentence is correct and applicable to other adverbials of time: в наше время, в наш век, в эпоху коммунизма, в старину, в понедельник - воскресенье, в первый год.

In other adverbials of time however a more congruent Prepositional is employed: в прошлом месяце, в будущем году, в январе - декабре

There appears to be no universal rule to this. There're some principles of inflexion within adverbials which are applicable to select time denoting words.

More details in Выражение времени: "Когда?"
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  • I guess it might be related to the "filling" of timespan. Whether it is just a small speck on the span, or mostly all of it. Compare, "в тот год холодная погода...." and "в следующем году работаем по 9 часов в день". The second phrase has a shade of "all year through". And, human can hardly live all the era or epoch through. – Arioch Oct 15 '18 at 19:15

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