In Russian, when we speak with past participle, there are either н-patterns (сделано/положено/доказано/разъяснено) or т-patterns (принято/сшито/открыто).

No verb, to the best of my knowledge, can have both p.pt. patterns at the same time.

What is the general rule for defining correct pattern?

  • 1
    Если присмотреться, то на первый взгляд кажется, что н всегда после а, е, а т всегда после я, и, ы, у.
    – КуЪ
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 12:55
  • @YellowSky, should I just delete my answer? While I was translating it, you posted the link to the same site.
    – petajamaja
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 17:18
  • @Umari - Definitely no! I voted for your answer. I'd better delete mine comment.
    – Yellow Sky
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 17:43
  • @YellowSky, you shouldn't have done that, I think your comment was just fine here... I just didn't want to write a plagiarism. Thanks for an upvote anyway =)
    – petajamaja
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 17:50
  • 1
    @Umari - That's alright, your translation is more useful than my mere link.
    – Yellow Sky
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 18:40

1 Answer 1


Passive past participles are formed from infinitives according to those rules:

  1. if the base of infinitive ends with -а (-я), , passive past participle is formed with suffix -нн-:

    • чита-ть – читанный;
    • посея-ть – посеянный;
    • виде-ть – виденный.
  2. if the base of infinitive ends with consonant or и (the и is then dropped in the resulting past participle ), then the passive past participle is formed with suffix -енн (-ённ-):

    • унес-ти – унесённый;
    • запеч-ь – запечённый;
    • раскраси-ть – раскрашенный;
    • освети-ть – освещённый;
    • убеди-ть – убеждённый;
    • прослави-ть – прославленный.

    Note that in the verbs of second conjugation type consonant gradation takes place : (с – ш, з – ж, т – ч – щ, д – ж – жд, в – вл и т. д.)

  3. If the base of first conjugation group infinitive ends with

    • и, ы, у, о,
    • я (а) , which is being interchanged with н or м,

    then the passive past participle is formed with suffix -т-:

    • мы-ть – мытый;
    • ви-ть – витый;
    • трону-ть – тронутый;
    • тере-ть – тёртый;
    • запере-ть – запертый;
    • моло-ть – молотый;
    • коло-ть – колотый,
    • мять (мн-у) – мятый,
    • сжа-ть (сожн-у, сожм-у) – сжатый.

    Note that in the verbs which have an infinitive base ending with -ере- the final е of the base is dropped : тере-ть – тёртый.

And then the short passive past participles from your question have the same letter as the one appearing in long forms:

  • сделанный - сделан

  • положенный - положен

  • доказанный - доказан

  • разъяснённый - разъяснён

  • принятый - принят

  • сшитый - сшит

  • открытый - открыт

information taken from this site, see §111 part II

  • +1 Very good answer. To improve even more you can also make your reference more precise by mentioning §111 part II. And are you sure that чередование согласных is best translated as "consonant gradation" - I would use "consonant alternation".
    – farfareast
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 20:30
  • Thanks for advice and vote, @farfareast =) I made some changes to the answer. As for gradation-alternation, they're both synonyms ( I used wikipedia to translate linguistic terms correctly - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apophony ) . However, I don't know anything about which translation is more frequent.
    – petajamaja
    Commented Jan 17, 2013 at 22:11

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