I just sent a message to a language exchange partner and instantly received the following response:
давай завтра, я сейчас в неадеквате
What does this expression mean? Has he tied one on?
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First of all, let me note that English "inadequate" and Russian неадекватный (in its direct sense) have slightly different meanings. The English word means "insufficient", the Russian one means "inappropriate, not conforming to norms or expectations".
In English, "adequate effort" would mean that the effort was enough to achieve a goal (even if it was out of order); in Russian, адекватные усилия would mean "appropriate, reasonable effort", something you would expect from a person in a situation, even if it did not actually achieve the goal.
So, неадекватная реакция на происходящее ("inappropriate response to external events") is a set phrase used in medical speech, describing a symptom of various mental disorders.
This phrase has spilled into the mainstream speech at some point (probably early 90's), and through metonymy неадекватный человек started to mean "a person with mental issues", which is quite close in meaning to "unreasonable person".
Further metonymy gave rise to the phrase не в адеквате meaning "having mental issues" and, then, "not being oneself" (due to the actual mental issues, stress, sleep deprivation, intoxication etc.)
So я сейчас не в адеквате (or в неадеквате) means "I'm not able to reason clearly at the moment".
It's a general indication that the person you're talking to is not in the right condition to respond right now. The reasons could be numerous, including but not limited to: