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This Unicode technical note explains that "The modern letter я does not exist in Church Slavonic".

Would it therefore be appropriate to write поклонимсѧ (worship) instead of поклонимся?

As I'm not going to see a "thorn" (þ) in modern English orthography, are ꙗ and ѧ likewise obsolete in terms of writing Church Slavonic? No current texts I can find online (e.g. the Elizabeth Bible) avoid Я.

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Church Slavonic orthography is quite complicated: there are different letters used to distinshuish between some homonyms, several types of stresses, commonly used abbreviations and all kind of other weird stuff.

Я is a letter from so called "civil script": a variation of Cyrillic alphabet used to write down Russian. It was never intended to be used for Church Slavonic.

Я has replaced two different Church Slavonic letters: and ѧ, both of which had their own place in the Church Slavonic orthography and you could not mix them freely.

So if you're asking:

If I replace and ѧ with я, will my writing still conform to the Church Slavonic orthography rules?

the answer is no, you can't do that. You have to write ѧ҆зы́къ when you mean "tongue" or "language" and ꙗ҆зы́къ when you mean "nation".

If you're asking

If I replace and ѧ with я, will I still be understood?

then yes, in most cases you probably would, same as if you had written "flour" instead of "flower" in English or vice versa.

However that would be not be standard orthography and some edge cases it could lead to confusion.

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are ꙗ and ѧ likewise obsolete in terms of writing Church Slavonic? No current texts I can find online (e.g. the Elizabeth Bible) avoid Я.

You've probably found some sort of transcript into the modern orthography. In fact, it should look like this (Genesis 1:2):

Землѧ́ же бѣ̀ невиди́ма и҆ неустро́ена, и҆ тма̀ верху̀ бе́здны, и҆ дх҃ъ бж҃їй ноша́шесѧ верху̀ воды̀.

Would it therefore be appropriate to write поклонимсѧ (worship) instead of поклонимся?

Yes, because at the end (and in the middle) of a word the letter "Little Yus" (\u+0467) must be used. But note that an accent is mandatory, so it is Поклони́мсѧ (we'll worship).

The modern letter я does not exist in Church Slavonic

Originally Я was an alternate lettering for the "Yus" known from handwritings. But in 1708 it was standartized for use in the Civil script (see Reforms of Russian orthography) under the name of "Letter Ya". Thus Я is not (and never was) printed in Church Slavonic books.

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"Appropriate" is a term that is heavily context-dependent. In linguistics text thanks to existence of Unicode (and even before it) the original Church Slavonic typeset is usually used. Exactly like usually for transmitting Ancient Greek texts original letters are used.

It's all a matter of tradition. For instance, to my knowledge for Gothic text "regular" latin alphabet is used (including some additional symbols like þ), and Gothic alphabet is used only in texts that are supposed to prepare reader to be able to read original manuscripts.

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