I would assume that "drugonauts" would definitely see those allusion there, but they would see allusions almost in any text anyway.
could pass Soviet censorship
The said translation has started in 1966 - https://www.vekperevoda.com/1900/dorlovskaja.htm
Back then those words almost definitely did not have those allusions.
I wonder if all of them even existed in that specific sense back then, even among the addicts themselves. While "stream something down the vein" expression should probably exist at least since hippie times (which probably itself only came in 1970-s to USSR) - inside the hippie subculture, not mainstream - i am very reserved about other words.
While it is possible that artists here and there sneaked "double meaning" kind of jokes in lyrics and even in architecture (statues, etc), it is equally possible that we are finding things only because we want to, "свинья грязи найдёт".
The much more obvious example would be "Голубой щенок" cartoon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZIHQDRByNw with lyrics that as of today definitely alludes to "No one wants to relate to me because i am gay".
I am not sure whether the same allusion worked on adults in then USSR, but i think that kids definitely saw "light blue" as just a colour with no extra meanings associated.
Which moves us back to the censorship issue. If children do not see the real or alleged reference - should there something be done about it at all? Why? The censorship objective goal is to prevent message, and subjective - as for any worker - is to avoid punishment by superiors. Cancelling the alleged hint to the audience that would not read it anyway lacks both goals.
One more example can be 1979 "Летучий Корабль" cartoon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CettOH7qSM
My parents told me that was a clear mocking of Soviet самодеятельность "mass culture" - state vetted attempts to organize people's creativity, so they would entertain each other in non-political ways, instead of getting bored or getting interested in politics, especially in small towns which the building alluded to, хрущовка-style as they saw it. Well, i did not see a thing there in it but a funny non-sense.
Now social criticism would probably be feared by Soviet censorship much more than marginal crime of drugs abuse, so if something should had been banned - it would be such a cartoon first, and Carrol far later.
Now to your specific list, as i personally feel about it:
- пыряться, as Wiktionary says, means to inject drugs to oneself.
I would say пырять or better пырнуть would refer to make a rough cut with a knife, mostly during some backstabbing or drunk bloody fight. From this point, making badly-aimed holes in one's vein with trembling hands can be seen as пыряться. But i would not see this verb as a go to word talking about drug injections. I would start with ширяться, then упарываться. If anything, пыряться has much more of allusion to the knife crime for me.
- По наве sounds similar to по вене (to a vein).
Just, no. And especially as we have some huge numbers of those animals in the rhymes. They do not share ONE common vein do they?
- Шорьки sounds similar to торчки (drug addicts).
- Хрюкотали seems to be a mixture of хрюкали and хохотали, natural reactions to drugs.
It definitely can be this mixture. But i do think this "natural reaction" is neither what kids of Brezhnev-time USSR would see as "most usually caused by drugs" and nothing else, nor that drugs mostly cause this not any other reaction (there are many drugs with vastly different effects).
And personally i do not feel "хохотали" in this.
It more hints at "repetitive bursts" kind of activity in my perception, like in "сверчки стрекотали", "реготали", "хлопотали" even.
Short repeatition like dozen sounds, then silence, then another repetition, etc.
- Зелюки appears to be derived from зелье,
No, especially since the former stresses the last syllable when the latter stresses the first one.
If one takes a quest to hear similarities, then my choice would go for "селюки" (of "село" - south-russian kind of village) - a mildly deragorary term for peasants, kind of "rednecks".
Personally this "revelation" you brought here itself sound like a joke. Take any neutral text and by explicitly obsessive interpretation force it to "denote" some specific and marginal thing, turn it into a an obviously "up to eleven" secret message. There is that kind of jokes and perhaps you just read one.