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I came across this phrase in a Russian reader I purchased and translated the phrase to mean,

I cannot do nothing with this.

The translation given by the author is

I can't do anything about it.

I checked the uses of the preposition "с" with the instrumental case in a Russian Grammar book, which stated the following uses:

(a) with in the sense of together with, along with, accompanied by

(b) to indicate an accompanying characteristic or attribute of someone or something

(c) to indicate manner

Also used with a list of verbs.

...

Is this phrase an idiomatic expression, or am I missing a case of use with the preposition с + instrumental? Thank you

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Another meaning of the Russian preposition "с" when used with the instrumental case is expressing associations, rather than spacial or temporal closeness. English "with" expresses a similar meaning in

I don't have anything to do with this. (я тут ни при чём)

Note that the meaning changes based on context: compare

Я не знаю что делать с лопатой. (I don't know what to do with a shovel.)

and

Я не знаю что делать с головной болью. (I don't know what to do about my headache.)

P.S. I am assuming that your question is not about the double negative in the reader's translation: that's commonplace in Russian - "ничего не могу сделать" becomes "cannot do anything".

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It seems that it corresponds then to the last sentence given in the Russian Grammar book that you quoted ("it is also used with a list of verbs"). The preposition c is used along with the verb делать: "to do something about/with ..." is "делать что с + (instr.)", which is indeed present in the phrase in question.

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