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однаждый corresponds to "one," and дваждый corresponds to "two." Would the third term be something like триждый? What are the remaining terms of this sequence, up to say, ten?

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In Russian, there are no such words as *однаждый or *дваждый, there are words однажды “once” and дважды “twice”. Then goes трижды “thrice, three times” and четырежды “four times”. These words are adverbs, they are answers to the question сколько раз? “how many times?” After four, the following adverbs of this kind are formed with the corresponding numeral + раз “times”: пять раз “five times”, шесть раз “six times”, etc.

  1. однажды “once”
  2. дважды “twice”
  3. трижды “thrice, three times”
  4. четырежды “four times”
  5. пять раз “five times”
  6. шесть раз “six times”
    ...
  1. семьдесят восемь раз “seventy-eight times” etc.

Alternatively, adverbs with the same meaning (“n times”) can be formed after another model: однократно “once”, двукратно “twice”, трёхкратно “three times”, четырёхкратно “four times”, and so on, the corresponding numeral in the Genitive case + -кратно, each of them being a single word, no spaces or hyphens inside:

  1. однократно “once”
  2. двукратно “twice”
  3. трёхкратно “thrice, three times”
  4. четырёхкратно “four times”
  5. пятикратно “five times”
  6. шестикратно “six times”
  7. семикратно “seven times”
  8. восьмикратно “eight times”
  9. девятикратно “nine times”
  10. десятикратно “ten times”
    ...
  1. семидесятивосьмикратно “seventy-eight times” etc.

From these latter adverbs one can form corresponding adjectives by substituting the suffix -o for -ый / -ая / -ое / -ые according to the gender and number of the adjective you need: двукратнодвукратный “two-fold, two-time”:

двукратный олимпийский чемпион “two-time Olympic champion”

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