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If we disregard those nouns whose genitive plural ending is zero, -ей, or -ий – are the rules for which vowel letter to use in the genitive plural ending -ов/-ёв/-ев the same as the rules for which vowel letter to use in the instrumental singular ending -ом/-ём/-ем (as described in https://russian.stackexchange.com/questions/12018/masculine-singular-instrumental-ом-ем-ём)?

Are the rules for which vowel letter to use in the а-declension instrumental singular ending ой/-ёй/-ей the same?

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The endings of the feminine nouns in the instrumental case ( with the exeption of those ending with -ь) are: -ой after hard consonants and -ей after soft ones or vowels: Культура — культурой Пенсия — пенсией Няня — няней, дядя — дядей When you have (ь) , just add -ю:

(радость) → с радостью But:

  1. After ж, ш, ч, щ и ц the endings depend upon stress (-о́й stressed, -ей unstressed)

(учи́тельница) — работает учи́тельницей. (хрипотца́) → голос с хрипотцо́й. Птица — птицей Ленцá — с ленцóй

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Yes, the rules for vowel distribution are exactly the same in those endings, as well as other endings e.g. neuter nominative -о/-е/-ё (ведро, поле, копьё), adjectival -ого/-его/-ёго, -ому/-ему/-ёму and suffixes:

  • дубовый, коричневый, вишнёвый
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