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Please look at the following two sentences:

  1. Летом она отдыхала в санатории.
  2. Этим летом она отдыхала в санатории.

What part of speech is the word "летом" in the 1st and in the 2nd sentence? It seems pretty weird, but I have a feeling that adding "этим" caused the word "летом" to change its part of speech.

зимой --> прошлой зимой; осенью --> ранней осенью...

Is there a linguistical term for this phenomenon?

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    In English, even adding any attributive words is not needed for a word to change from an adverb (“I want this done today”) to a noun (Today is the day we'll fix this once and for all.”)
    – Yellow Sky
    Aug 20 '20 at 17:16
  • The former is a adverb converted from the noun лето in instrumental case (also often used as temporalis or locative in Russian) The latter is a verb without conversion. It's literally same as "Today"(noun) - "Today"(adverb) - "To this day" (a noun "day"!)
    – Swift
    Aug 21 '20 at 7:59
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What part of speech is the word "летом" in the 1st and in the 2nd sentence?

It's an adverb in the first sentence and a noun in the second sentence.

Is there a linguistical term for this phenomenon?

This is called "conversion" or "null derivation".

In this particular case it would be called "null-derived adverbialization" (forming an adverb from a certain form of a noun without changing this form whatsoever)

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