So the kind of situations I am thinking is in these kinds of contexts: "How was that like for you to give a presentation in front of your class?" "How is that like for you to be a parent?" "How was that like for you to stand in line for so long?"
Or simply in a dialogue:
A: Yesterday I saw my parents.
B: How was that like for you?
Some things I thought of are:
"Как это было для тебя?" But I think it sounds weird and I believe one doesn't say such things in Russian.
"Что ты чувствовал...[when this or that happened]?" or "Как ты себя чувствовал?...[when this or that happened]?" Is "what/how did you feel". But "how was that like for you" feels more general, is not only about feelings, and gives more freedom to the person answering.
EDIT: some more explanations about "how is that like for you":
Maybe another wording for "how was that like for you" is "how was your experience". Basically one is asking in a open way mainly about the internal experience of the person: what happened for you, how it happened for you, what did you feel, what did you think, what did you experience, etc. Meaning one wants to hear everything or anything about that event/situation, but more centered about the internal experience, felt sense, inner world of the person, rather than the external circumstances. Here I use the word "experience" as in "испытывать, чувствовать, переживать"