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For example, nowadays, one might say Собака женщины - большая, but not Собака меня - большая(cf. When should I use genitive personal pronouns versus possessive pronouns?).

Was it ever historically correct to use the genitive case of personal pronouns in this context?

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While «собака меня большая» in the meaning of possession is impossible in Russian, besides «моя собака большая» you can say «собака у меня большая», or «у меня собака большая» which shows possession as well. It is the inversion of the well-known construction: У меня (есть) большая собака. But in general, don't expect that languages just copy each other. Each has got its own structure and its own way.

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Was it ever historically correct to use the genitive declension of personal pronouns in this context?

Wiktionary claims that third-person possessive pronouns его/её/их stem from genitive form of respective personal pronouns. There's no reference to any reliable source, though. No such claim is made for first- and second-person pronouns.

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