What would be the difference between
по-иному / иначе
- What comes иначе from (is it comparative of иной)?
- Is there something alike for другой? And why or why not?
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Другой - comes from "Два" (two), "Второй" (second) and can be translated as "another" ("not like first"). There is one differences between "another" word usage in English and "другой" word in Russian.
If you say "Give me another cake, pls" - you expect to have one more cake, but if you say "Дайте мне другое пироженое, пжлст" - you are going to return the cake you have back and take another (different) one:
Also Другой by meaning can be placed between
Иной - Другой - Следующий Different - Another - Next
Иной means something strange, not usual, outstanding and can be translated as "different", "strange". Иной is exact adjective to describe an alien.
But иначе is exactly the same as по-другому and can be translated as "different way".
Also Иной is rarely used word (as well as по-иному). I would say these two words are obsolete.
I don't know the good synonym for другой. It is commonly used word and I believe it does not have competitors between words :)
иной is an adjective and synonymous with другой. The only difference would be common sayings or phrases that use one or the other.
по-другому and по-иному / иначе are also synonyms.
иначе is an adverb whereas иной is an adjective, so something alike for другой would also be an adverb from другой (probably you would just use по-другому).
Hope it helps!