What is the difference in meaning between "свобода" and "воля" and also between "свободный" and "вольный"?
свобода (свободный) и воля (вольный) have many meanings. And only few of them are synonymous. Let's take a look at those synonymous meanings by way of examples:
вольный ветер- I wouldn't use
свободная продажа, по
волен/свободен поступать, как хочет
слишком свободное/вольное поведение
свободные движения, свободное дыхание, свободно говорить по-французски- can't be replaced with
So the main difference to my mind is that
свобода means that there are barriers and the subject is free from them. So usually we don't say
свободный ветер because you can't possibly imagine barriers for a wind. But movements, breath, speech can be restricted and so you can be free from limitations.
воля has a hidden connotation that the subject wants something (that's his will and hence the freedom to do it). So a wind is free to go wherever it wants and we say
вольный to add human features such as will, willfulness, playfulness to the wind. And we can't say
вольное дыхание because we breath, move, speak a foreign language not voluntarily , at least not in the big sense. And will is attributable only to humans.
One other thing worth mentioning here in this comparison is that
воля, вольный are less frequent words. Don't use them unless you really know what you want to say.
свободный ветер sounds almost fine, unlike
вольное дыхание, which is ridiculous since breathing is a process not a human being.
There could be some addition to the previous answers. The words
воля are pretty close to each to other and the use cases are depend, but saying generally:
свободаis about freedom of choice, a potential state of thinking and acting freely.
will, it's more about a desired freedom (when someone who is not free wants to be free "хочет на волю" or "хочет быть на воле" or even "вызволен" - to be freed (by any means). Also it is about an inner state of mind and character of a person "У него есть сила воли (у него сильная воля), поэтому он легко бросил курить"