Could anybody give a precise info on when to use "
cвященный" and when "
Is it similar to sainted/sacred and holy? I mean, is it just a different root, these words come from? Or is it actually the same root?
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святой = very good, innocent, without sin, without any dirtyness, pure in spuritual sense
священный = very important, venerated, sacred
Definitely священный implyes certain rites or ritual importance of the object.
One can apply священный to such things as sword, war, crown, staff, sceptre, monument, book, word, oath, flag, symbol, event etc, while святой is applied to things and people of especial purity: man, woman, martyr, virginity, good character, water, blessing, baptism, sacrament, deed, life, nature etc.
For instance, holy war = священная война. War cannot be святая unless it is a war without sin with only good words :-). A holy sword is священный меч. A святой меч possibly heals instead of killing. Note though that holy inquisition is translated святая инквизиция, that is "sinless/pure inquisition". You can use священный as a synonym for "very important": эта инструкция для меня священна "this manual is very important for me, I will not deviate from it under any circumstances".