Questions tagged [грамматика]

How the grammar works: how different forms of the same word can be used, what they mean, how they are composed into phrases or sentences. Use this tag with or without a more precise one (check out "morphology", "syntax", "word-order", and tags for different parts of speech ("nouns") and grammatical categories ("cases")).

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59
votes
2answers
7k views

What are the lesser known Russian cases?

In schools, it is taught that Modern Russian has 6 cases: Nominative (Именительный) Genitive (Родительный) Dative (Дательный) Accusative (Винительный) Instrumental (Творительный) ...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Я вижу + numeral + noun - governed by what case?

Я ви́жу одного́ ма́льчика. (I see one boy.) Я ви́жу два до́ма. (I see two houses.) Я ви́жу двух ма́льчиков. (I see two boys.) I often get confused with the cases. As far as I know, after "...
9
votes
4answers
1k views

What part of speech is "нельзя"?

What part of speech is "нельзя"? I see so many Russian dictionaries say it is used as a predicative complement (предикатив), but none of the ones I saw would "dare" state it as an adverb (наречие).
3
votes
2answers
2k views

Краткая и полная форма прилагательного в сказуемом

У меня в голове хаос, и я уже не знаю, что и как. Меня в школе учили, что в составном сказуемом всегда используется краткая форма прилагательного, и я всегда использовал краткую форму. В другом месте ...
28
votes
5answers
2k views

Elementary understanding of the concept aspect

First, for the aim of this question I must say that I am not familiar with the Russian language, but I read a bit about it and am curious. I've never learned Russian before and just able to say a ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

When to use the genitive or the accusative in negative sentences

In my Russian course we have learnt that in negative sentences the object is often in the genitive. On the other hand there are situations in which it is correct to use an accusative, and there is ...
5
votes
1answer
267 views

"Крыса была примечательная" or "примечательна"?

У неё была одна странность: она дружила с крысой. Крыса была примечательная, жила неизвестно где и приходила на зов. Почему здесь нет краткой формы прилагательного, т.е. примечательна? Это ведь (...
5
votes
2answers
480 views

Case of complements in Russian

Context: My book says that: The copular verb is absent in the present tense for a compound predicate and the noun [which is the complement] is in the nominative case. In the past and future tenses ...
23
votes
2answers
918 views

What's the first person singular future of победить

What is the first person singular of победить in future tense? The other person-numbers have obvious forms such as: ты победишь, мы победим, они победят, вы победите, он победит, я ??? The obvious &...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Много людей (знает/знают)

I encountered this phrase: "Много людей в Европе и Америке знает о Петербурге." The subject is intuitively plural, so I expected "знают" - "Много людей знают...". When are singular verbs used in ...
11
votes
2answers
329 views

Are there analogous words for words оба, обе for three and more?

I can take two books in the bookshop and say обе to indicate I want to buy both. Are there any analogous words for three and more items, to indicate that I have all of them in mind?
5
votes
1answer
3k views

When do I use "мой" и "моя"

I have been learning Russian for a year now. I took a trip to somewhere where there are many Russian speaking peoples. I realized that I use мойи моя incorrectly. Can someone please help me.
3
votes
3answers
240 views

Numerals and cases - why in this sentence the adjective is in plural form?

I'm studying numerals and I found this example: У меня есть 2 старших брата, и одна старшая сестра far as I know after У меня есть It should be an nominative, so for the rule of the numbers the 2 ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

мозг в местном/предложном падеже

Как правильно - в головном мозгу или в головном мозге?
6
votes
1answer
2k views

The Meaning of "Ещё"

At first, I wash taught that ещё means "yet". However, as I get deeper in grammar, I am seeing that sometimes it means " more" or even "else"! What is the actual meaning, and how can I differentiate ...
5
votes
2answers
278 views

Parts of speech in the question "Чей это ...?"

When someone asks a question along the lines: Чей это кот? Чья это собака? Чьё это письмо? Чьи это очки? I have the following two questions regarding the structure of these interrogative sentences: ...
4
votes
2answers
216 views

How to tell a participle from an adjective?

What's the right way to tell a present passive participle from an adjective? I guess if the agent is mentioned (like in "Изменяемый мною проект"), then it's for sure a participle. But what about such ...
4
votes
3answers
759 views

Regarding case usage with звать

Let's take a very simple sentence like Меня зовут Анна. While typically translated as "My name is Anna" a more literal translation would be, "They call me Anna," correct? Меня is the accusative, or ...
10
votes
6answers
660 views

Use of Dative after учить etc

I've always had trouble figuring out why the dative is used in such constructions: Я учу драконов русскому языку каждый день—вот беда моя! So why is the verb учить followed by an accusative object ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

"Кем бы он ни был" or "кто бы он ни был" - which one to choose?

With structures such as the following how do we decide whether кто should be instrumental or nominative— кем бы он ни был OR кто бы он ни был
5
votes
2answers
476 views

Ways to better study глаголы движения

I'm terrible with movement verbs, I never use them well, especially with prefixes, the way to use them changes a lot!!! I get incredibly confuse. So if someone has a good book reference regarding ...
5
votes
2answers
526 views

"Aэропорт "Домодедово" - why not genitve?

When we form a noun phrase, we use either adjectives or genitive case. For example; красная машина -> feminine adjective + feminine noun (red car) цвет цветка -> nominative case + genitive case ...
5
votes
2answers
349 views

What is the difference between "мосте" and "мосту" for a prepositional form of "мост"?

I have found the following sentence: Девочка сидит на мосту. However, when I looked up мост in my dictionary, I found that it listed two declined forms on the prepositional, which is мосте and ...
3
votes
2answers
830 views

Use of instrumental with был/быть, e.g. "Ты был забавным."

Today the following sentence came up in a chat with a Russian friend: Ты был забавным. Here the adjective is in dative instrumental case, but I would expect it to be in nominative together with the ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Difference between нужно и надо

Hello probably this is duplicate question but I still can't understand the difference in use between these 2 words? Надо и нужно Can you give me some examples please?
14
votes
2answers
736 views

Order of declensions (склонения)

I'm learning Russian, and I see it mentioned in study material that Russian nouns have three declensions (склонения). In English-language learning material, the order of the declensions is like so: ...
6
votes
4answers
1k views

Что: Can it even be translated?

This word has given me a lot of trouble while studying Russian. At first, I thought it meant "what" or "that". But, I recently heard someone say, "Да, что очень важно." Why? Why not, "Это очень важно"?...
19
votes
4answers
2k views

Why do I keep seeing зову́т for third person singular?

I've seen phrases like Как его зовут? in several places, but when I look up зовут, it appears to be the third person plural. Why is it being used for the singular, here?
19
votes
7answers
1k views

Why "лук" is a mass noun while "огурец" is not?

In Russian, we use some fruit and vegetable names as mass nouns and don't form plural for them: Салат с луком / капустой / клубникой while the others do form plural: Салат с огурцами / ...
15
votes
5answers
4k views

How acceptable is to omit pronouns in certain verb usages?

That's it, for example, is it acceptable to say Люблю тебя, or do you have to use я Люблю тебя. Or читал книгу instead of Я читал книгу?
11
votes
2answers
661 views

Difference between "за" (as in "за что-либо/кого-либо") and "для"

In what contexts should I use за or для when saying "for" or "to" something or someone? For example, I understand that it is proper to use "за" when calling out a toast: "за Россию!". But that you ...
10
votes
10answers
1k views

Why do Russians say "Чего?" and not "Что?" when they didn't understand something?

Иди, дело есть. ― Чего? ― спросил Карусельщик с подозрением, но из тумана все же показался. // [Елена Хаецкая. Синие стрекозы Вавилона/ Семеро праведных в раю господина (2004)] Could anybody explain ...
8
votes
4answers
2k views

How to tell a personal vs. impersonal sentence?

I read an example that said this sentence was personal: Его ослепила молния and this one impersonal: Его ослепило молнией To me they both mean "The lightning blinded him." I don't really understand ...
7
votes
3answers
1k views

выходить vs. уходить

I once asked a native speaker what the difference is between выходить and уходить, and I was told that выходить means to exit in a general direction, while уходить means to exit in a specific ...
15
votes
6answers
807 views

What form is "в гости"?

So, "Я в гостях" seems to be prepositional plural of гость "Я иду в гости" leaves me puzzled, though. According to conjugation tables, it is nominative plural, while в used to express direction ...
12
votes
2answers
308 views

Не справился с управлением транспортным средством/транспортного средства?

What way is correct here? ... водитель не справился с управлением транспортным средством or ... водитель не справился с управлением транспортного средства
9
votes
2answers
637 views

Difference between 'падать' and 'упасть'

I am a new student of the russian language. I came across 'падать/упасть' to fall. Could someone explain this to me because they look like entirely different words to my untrained eyes. Even just a ...
9
votes
1answer
489 views

Are there inflectives in Russian?

Recently I learned that there is a special form of verbs in German, called "inflective", which emerged in German language just recently (less than 60 years ago), and that they sometimes grupped with ...
9
votes
3answers
968 views

со днём vs. с днём

I'm aware that о is added to some prepositions for historical reasons in some combinations (со дня, ко мне, во сне, etc.). A student recently asked why we usually say с днём рождения instead of со ...
9
votes
3answers
985 views

Why "две ванные"?

As I understand it, ванная is a substantive adjective (just learned that googling for an answer for this) that acts as a noun, but still declines like an adjective. Shouldn't it be the genitive plural ...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

"Что–то" or "что–нибудь"

They both mean "something" but I have seen somewhere that there is a subtle difference between their respective senses. Could someone give me a hint at the difference along with sentences?
7
votes
1answer
276 views

"занял целые 5 лет" or "занял целыx 5 лет"?

What's the right way of saying "Этот процесс занял целые пять лет" or "Этот процесс занял целыx пять лет". I guess it's accusative inanimate, so it should be целые, am I correct?
7
votes
3answers
807 views

Auxiliary verbs

When learning Russian grammar, the only auxiliary verb that is explained is быть, which is used for forming the imperfective future tense. However, occasionally I have seen sentences where идти is ...
7
votes
2answers
251 views

A construction with double "бы"-s

This sentence apparently means "I would like to sleep till April": Заснуть бы до апреля бы. But I can't understand the use of "бы" here. Could someone give examples of other sentences using this ...
5
votes
2answers
207 views

Why is "ни" omitted here to say "nothing"?

Раз вы не Раиса, то нам не о чем разговаривать. ... then we have nothing to talk about. To convey the idea of "nothing", I usually expect to see the combination of "ни", "не", and "что", as in "ни ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

"иди работай" vs. "иди работать" vs. "иди и работай"

I wonder what do constructions like "иди работай" mean? What is the kind of situation that one has in mind when one uses two verbs in imperative next to each other? More precisely, is there any ...
5
votes
3answers
358 views

why the verb is singular in this sentence?

I'm studying numbers and I found this example: На стадионе собралось пятьдесят тысяч человек. The subject is genitive plural, if I'm not wrong. Why is the verb in past singular? Is it like English ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Сослагательный инфинитив при союзе "чтобы" и разносубъектные конструкции

Попалось на глаза вот такое предложение: Должно пройти достаточно много времени, чтобы стать мастером. Я воспринял его как грамматически неправильное. Погуглив, нашел такое описание ...
5
votes
1answer
209 views

Why is the instrumental case used in the sentence: Чтобы быть здоровым?

From what I can tell, здоровым is the masculine/neuter instrumental case of здоровый. What I can't figure out is why the instrumental is used there? The sentence comes from a transcript found here: ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

ходил / сходил / пошёл

I was told that : пошёл - went somewhere and (usually) haven’t come back yet (and told that I can use ушёл here too) if you state it as a fact or as a part of a story with other actions following one ...