-small m = т
-и with line on top = й
-g = д
-mirrored s = г
These are handwriting style characters, but some of them (m, -и with line on top and mirrored s in particular) are also used in italicized version of some Russian fonts, Arial and Times New Roman to name a few.
The character "д" is the lowercase italic version of "Д", which both derive from the greek letter Delta (compare with "Δ", "δ"). In most fonts the straight lowercase letter is written as "д", while "д" is used in italic type. In some fonts (typically monospace console fonts or fonts designed for headings: Tahoma, Lucida Console, Franklin, Arial Bold, Century,...
First word (Уездная) has an obsolete letter "yat" ("ять") in cursive, so it looks different form its typical form (ѣ).
Second word (Нарымъ) has no obsolete letters, although the first letter "Н" is written in uncommon form (maybe someone knows an explanation).
"Э оборотное" is just other name for "э". The reason why it's called "оборотное" (sort of reversed) is that modern Russian "е" initially was written as "є" - well, more strictly among other form this one was used as well. Buy the way, this is how it is still written in Ukrainian.
Думаю что целенаправленного изменения штриха не было. Если посмотреть на заглавные буквы печатных книг, видно что штрих в букве И сначала был ровным, потом слегка наклоненным (как бы для удобства письма), затем этот наклон стал более выраженным.
Что касается буквы Н, которая писалась как N, то ее вариации тоже в своих крайних формах меняли наклон среднего ...
As Alissa correctly said, the first letter in both words is Я, and the first name is Янъ (Yan). But the first word is "Явился". It is neither a first name nor a surname, it means "[there] came". The image is most likely a scan or a photo from a parish book in which the newborn children were recordered. Every such record begins with the name of the place and ...
б is a variant of бы that can be used (entirely optionally) if the preceding word ends with a vowel. Чтобы, being что+бы, always has the variant чтоб.
Similarly (with the same after-a-vowel rule), ли has ль and же has ж. The full and shortened forms are not entirely interchangeable; the shortened ones are stylistically non-neutral in most contexts, so when ...
Well, while V.V is not wrong about voicelessness, there's actually something else out there. What you seem to hear is actually an evidence of so called "явления придыхательности глухих согласных" (aspiration of voiceless consonant). It's not х it's more close to the phonetic [h] (like in English hen). In some cases (usually before other voiceless consonant) ...
These are two completely different words.
Эго is a noun which means ego. In most cases, it means a (usually boosted) sense of self-importance, for example у него непомерно раздутое эго. In Russian, эго in such meaning has negative connotations. Sometimes эго means Freudian or philosophical concept of ego.
Это means it. (There are other, similar, meanings.)
Russian letter 'Е' sounds differently when it's the first letter of a word, or when it follows a consonant in the middle of a word. Letter 'Э' sounds the same in any part of the word. Both letters are vowels. As pointed out by manjusri, your friend could have mistaken 'З' (Z) with 'Э' (Е).
Letter 'Э' sounds similar to 'e' in English words 'bed, bet, ten'. ...
The consonant letter resembling a vowel by its form is З з (like number three), so your friend might inintentionally mistake the З з for Э э.
The letter Э э is closer to the first part [ε] in the diphtong from the English word 'care', while the Russian E e is closer to pronuciation of English E e in 'ten' as a shorter version of E e in Swedish sedan or ...
The word prelude "прелюдия" is printed with an older font. Hence glyphs are slightly different from the modern fonts. In the future you can check such glyphs against the table of Old Cyrillic alphabet. Just keep in mind that many letters from the old alphabet are obsolete now.
Additionally, you can pick a font in the character map program on your system ...
Consonants in Russian (and in all other languages) are either voiced or voiceless.
The consonants in each pair below are pronounced in exactly the same manner, the only difference being in the presence or absence of vibration in the vocal cords:
In Russian pronunciation, all voiced consonants at ...
On modern usage of Ы-words.
The absense of words starting from letter Ы was challenged by many creative people in literature and cinema. The letter itself become a codename for "cover operation" in "Операция "Ы" movie and a name of a fictional animal Вепрь Ы from the SF-book by Strugatskies "Трудно быть богом".
To my mind, the most influential nowadays is ...
Поскольку ответы в одно предложение, насколько я помню, против правил (в таких случаях рекомендуется дать больше информации), даю название всех букв.
Названия букв в старой орфографии. В квадратных скобках сама буква, если она не совпадает с первой буквой названия. В круглых скобках вариант названия или (курсивом) моё примечание.
азъ, буки, вѣди, глаголь,...
Yes, because E e at a beginning of a word is heard as [je]. Moreover,
это = this / it
эго = Ego (as in Freudian personality theory).
I haven't ever seen ето written instead of это by a native speaker who doesn't speak a dialect (and no dialect except for St. Petersburgs or Moscovian is regarded as a prestigious variety of speech by natives).
My intuition is that perhaps you meant его (as a Single Genitive Case of он(о)) instead of эго, which is more likely to be 'used almost in the same context' as это, or perhaps него.
The differences shall be as follows:
это (Gen. Sg. этого [étava]) = a) demonstrative pronoun (or b) neutrum descriptive pronoun).
a) Это миелофон. = This is a mind-reading ...
Every language has its quirkiness. With Russian,this is evident when one starts typing texts on a PC - and then formatting parts of it. Hence, the сведения seems to differ from "сведения". But, this is solely due the use of italics.
This can be easily verified by copying "сведения" twice without a particular format, then mark one of these Russian words; ...
If i'm not mistaken it must be титульный шрифт (from the obsolete титул - title, since it was used to inscribe book/chapter titles), or титульная вязь, which i'm not sure is an accurate name because it only becomes вязь when the letters are combined into ligatures or in other decorative ways. And i suppose it's based on устав.
Would you describe it as [-rx] or as [-rkʰ]? If it's the first, it's not just a четверг thing, but a Southern pronunciation feature where the final /г/ is pronounced [x] instead of simply devoicing to [k]. (Бог is the only example common to all Russian accents.)
If it's the second, it's just the final [-k] becoming more breathy in that particular word-final ...
Gemination is a bit fuzzy in Russian:
Words such as касса, масса, тонна, ванна, Мекка, поддать, Приенисейе [йй] have 'true doubles': saying them with a single consonant can hinder understanding. Minimal pairs: подать - поддать, подождём - под дождём, (нет) тона - тонна, при Енисее - Приенисейе.
Then there are 'false doubles' which are normally pronounced ...
Actually your assumption is wrong - de-facto both versions, Гаянэ and Гаяне are used (the same about Armine), this is even mentioned in Wikipedia:
Гаянэ́ или Гаяне́ (арм. Գայանե) — армянское женское имя греческого
происхождения; русские формы имени — Гаиания, Гаяния1. Греческая
форма (др.-греч. Γαϊανὴ) образована от др.-греч. Γῆ, Γᾶ, Γαῖα — Гея,
либо от γῆ, ...