You have a very good teacher, Mitsuko, and I'm sure one day you will appreciate what he's doing for you. :)
The dialogue seems to be grossly ungrammatical and to make little sense
It makes perfect sense to a native speaker.
The woman asks whether they shall cross the road (or not).
The man points out that they can't cross now because the light is red.
I suppose that your translation ‘a bout of hysteria’ is more about physiological process, which is uncontrollable. But the verb ‘закатить’ assumes a girl’s intention. So maybe ‘throw a tantrum’ would be better in this context.
There are a few different meanings in your examples. Let's try and unpick them. У меня, у нас can be used to express:
Possession: у меня = мой, у нас = наш:
У меня рука болит = Моя рука болит.
У нас народ умный = Наш народ умный (your example #4)
A patronizing / possessive way of referring to people, often your kids / spouses, etc.
Он у меня ещё ...
It seems she said я та ещё щука.
Тот ещё means "quite, some, hell of", as in "That's some vacation you spent with me", "That's quite a wife you have", etc:
Скорее я могу быть генералом де Голлем, чем он ― секретарем райкома. Между прочим, он тот еще трус
Твой Стрельников тот еще жук, и сам денег нагреб, и нам еще осталось.
First of all, a shameless plug of my earlier answer on why у does not quite mean "near" (but something more akin to the French chez, i.e. a place/household/domain notion used in the abstract.)
Secondly, I have a general impression that languages usually start out not having a verb for "to have", and then some evolve it and some don't. Entire language ...
The closest match I can think of is "тревожный звонок" / "тревожный звоночек" (more popular form), like in:
Если твой парень никогда не приводит тебя в свой дом - это тревожный звонок.
Here a some other (real-life) examples:
«Авангард» завершил регулярку четырьмя поражениями и упустил второе
место на Востоке, это тревожный звоночек.
2. Разг. Одновременно заниматься многим, не сосредоточиваясь на чём-л. одном; разбрасываться.
"Не распыляйся" means exactly the same "to do many things at the same time not paying much attention to any of them. The verb is formed from "пыль" which is translated as "dust".We also say "Не разбрасывайся по ...
I'm native russian speaker. If you had video/audio call, then you most likely misheard her.
It is not "Так что я тающая щука"
It is "Так что я та ещё сука".
It's not an idiom it's more like just an emotional expression, which can be translated like: "Well, I am a bitch" or "Well, I am bitchy"
In regular context it ...
There is an expression "диванный эксперт" ("the sofa expert"), I think it is almost the same. It could be applied to any profession. Also, there is another one expression - "диванные войска" ("the army on the sofa"), which means a group of people who are "experts" in military questions or a group of people supporting in internet one of sides of the war (a ...
Actually it was never widespread. Russian society for centuries was split to political elite and the rest of population. The phrase "собака на сене" comes from an Aesop's fable with the same name. The famous Spanish theater play actually is called "El perro del hortelano", the garderner's dog, and this term historically belongs to the same family of pan-...
Yes, your translation is OK. Another one idiom (among translations you found) which is commonly used is
Привычка - вторая натура
The following is also often used, but has a little bit different meaning:
Горбатого могила исправит
This expression describes a person with negative qualities, who don't want to correct the behaviour. It could be applied ...
It’s a rhyming euphemism for сосни хуйца. The article by the link provided lists lots of similar euphemisms. All of them are born in Russian Internet culture, I would not expect an infrequent Internet user to understand it.
Your particular phrase originates from «лососни тунца», which is a more obvious euphemism and a nonsense phrase, as there’s no verb «...
хорошо для тебя in this context is not idiomatic.
I guess in Russian it can be expressed with Поздравляю! or Молодец/Молодчина!
(Тебе) везёт / Везёт (тебе) is suitable in situations where luck is truly a determinant or when there's some degree of jealousy involved.
In the context of physical benefit it's usually phrased as полезно, and тебе полезно when ...
For a person (and in Russian everything is a person), the Russian thought model makes no distinction between:
the person's moral right to do something;
the person's ability to do something (like, physical ability);
the objective circumstances allowing or not for anyone to do something in a given situation. (Note that the circumstances are a person too!)
Came into European languages from Greek via Erasmus' Latin translation:
Ὁ δύο πτῶκας διώκων οὐδέτερον καταλαμβάνει
Duos insequens lepores, neutrum capit
(English: By chasing two rabbits, he catches neither; from Adagia 3.3.36).
Adagia (singular adagium) is the title of an annotated collection of Greek and Latin proverbs, compiled during the ...
First of all, I agree with Nikolay Ershov and others who point out that your understanding of "у" is incorrect: it really mostly means belonging (even stronger than chez) and only secondarily and colloquially you can use it to talk about proximity.
Russian absolutely has a verb for ownership, the same "иметь" you mention, but:
it must be used logically, in ...
Не наебёшь — не проживёшь
This literally means "if you don't fuck people over, you don't survive".
The meaning of this proverb is slightly different from the Chinese one, as it's more about moral justification of cheating rather than pure utility, but otherwise I think it's a good analog.
Elaborating on some suggestions from the comments:
Не пойман — ...
To eliminate the awkwardness of such double negations a safer approach is to (steer away from English patterns and) use сложноподчиненное предложение, e.g.:
Нет ничего, о чём я побоялась бы написать.
and similar constructs.
Через день is a set phrase which means "every other day".
You can also say через два дня ("every third day"), через три дня ("every fourth day") etc., however, to avoid ambiguity, phrases like those are usually worded as через два дня на третий or день через два, or just раз в три дня.
Через день can also mean "in a day" (hence the ambiguity) and usage of ...
Here же is an emphatic intensifying particle.
Где ручка? is a straight question.
Где же ручка? may be an expression of 1) impatience, frustration and annoyance of not being able to find it (Where's the pen for god's sake?) or 2) surprise about its disappearance or inability to find it (So where's the pen?)
Теперь они друг друга на дух не переносят (or не выносят).
A couple examples from the corpus:
Мужа своего частенько прилюдно поругивала и разве что не колотила, свёкра не переносила на дух, и он платил ей теми же облигациями.
Человек ничего плохого мне не сделал, а я его терпеть не могу. На дух не выношу!
Эсперантистов он с юности на дух не выносил, ...
It's a paradox rather than absurdity. Such things happen. You might eagerly be expecting a phone call, and still be shocked when the phone rings suddenly. Or even more paradoxically, you might know a deadline precisely, but still be surprised when it happens. (How? Already?!) A proverbial occurrence with student exams :)
In your specific case, everyone knew ...
Those expressions are called "fillers".
Russian, as most languages, has many of them: как бы, типа, знаешь, так сказать etc:
They usually don't need to be translated verbatim:
Постарайся вести себя, ну, знаешь, потише
Постарайся вести себя как бы потише
Постарайся вести себя, типа, потише
Постарайся вести себя, так сказать, потише
are all ...
Is it a Норм чувак (1) or Норм, чувак (2) (the latter has comma, which means addressing to чувак)?
In a first variant Норм is a short form of нормальный (acceptable, satisfactory, good), the second one is a short form of нормально (it is ok).
So, (1) may be translated as He is good dude in context of mentioning someone. And (2) may be translated as It is ...