36

The word most common in speech is машина. Автомобиль is the "right word", but it's long and unpopular. Авто (unlike, say, its German counterpart) is not a "real word" on its own, but rather a spoken short form of автомобиль, or just a prefix. It has its usage (say, in magazines), but generally it's far behind машина. There are also slanguish variants, of ...


29

Зовут is really the third person plural, "[they] call", it is an impersonal verb and has no explicit subject in the sentences about names, so Как его зовут? can be translated word for word as "How him [they] call?" that is "How do they call him?" And the answer is "Его зовут Алексей." - "Him [they] call Alexey." - "They call him Alexey." That is how these ...


25

Military oral commands can have several stresses. Typically a word is divided into two parts: All syllables, except the last one. It identifies a command and means get ready for step 2. The last syllable that means Go! Examples: Нале-во! Напра-во! Пря-мо!


22

There are two verbs in Russian which are homonymous in one of their forms: it's есть meaning "to eat" (infinitive) and есть meaning "(it) is" (third person singular present from быть "to be"). These verbs are not cognates (meaning they are not connected etymologically), they just happen to be homonyms in that one form and only ...


20

These phrases should be understood as contractions. I wrote the full forms to the right. Что? = Что [ты говоришь]? or Что [ты сказал]? (What do/did you say?) Чего? = Чего [ты хочешь]? or Чего [тебе надо]? (What do you want/need?) The later variant suggests that the listening party thinks the speaker wants/asks something from them, possibly something ...


20

This is a particle which puts some shared context or knowledge of the conversation as a theme (topic) of the conversation and expects some development (rheme) on that topic. It's a description in very broad strokes, and the details differ between affirmative sentences and questions, so bear with me. Here's a couple of examples for affirmative sentences: — ...


19

Two objections to people dismissing this "because it's an adverb": Adverb or not, it started out as a noun and a preposition, and the case form still has to be explained somehow. More importantly: you can say в жёны is also an adverb, and в пионеры too, but what about (произведён) в полковники? Or Pushkin's мы все глядим в Наполеоны? Are they really just ...


18

The main pattern is to place the subject to the end of the question, after the predicate. If the predicate is complex, it is most likely to be reversed. Examples. Let's checkout examples provided in the article above: She dances - Танцует она. Ben reads the book - Книгу читает Бен. Ben's mother, Felicity, gave me a present - Фелисити, Бена Мать, дала ...


18

In this particular case it means "Why are you grumpy today"? So, "we" means "you" in this sentence. This form is often used when talking to children and emphasizes jocular tone.


17

Russian is an inflecting language, like Latin or Ancient Greek. There are six cases for nouns and adjectives. Nominative: Россия Genitive: России Dative: России Accusative: Россию Instrumental: Россией Prepositional: (о) России (The о in parentheses is a token preposition that it's customary to put there, since the prepositional case is never used ...


16

It is called субстантивированное прилагательное, "substantivized adjective", an adjective used as a noun. There are a lot of them in Russian, and usually they have a generic noun associated with them, but it is usually elided. As for бриллиантовый зелёный the generic noun is "краситель" (pigment, dye), not "color" as @fedja suggested.


16

У меня есть блог appears to be the most exact translation. Я веду блог is also an option. The latter variant is even closer to English I have... clause and it sounds natural to Russian, unlike literal translation Я имею блог. Please do not use я имею... in this case. If your intend to introduce yourself as a blogger in an oral conversation, then just я - ...


16

It's мне нравится бегать. More natural, perhaps, is я люблю бегать; definitely not интересуюсь. Мне нравится бежать is something you could say in the middle of running, in response to a question why you wouldn't walk. Or it could be an "existential", mildly pretentious way to say "I like fleeing". This is a specific case of the motion ...


16

-то is a particle used to emphasize the word it is used with. Я-то понимаю. Ночь-то какая тёплая! Слушать-то слушал, да ничего не понял. Где-то он сейчас? Что дальше-то делать будешь? It doesn't change the meaning though. It is used with indefinite pronouns and adverbs. Кто-то звонит. Что-то упало со стола. Какой-то человек вошёл в дом. Когда-то слышала ...


16

Russian has the T-V distinction. This means that you use the plural version of "you" (вы) when addressing a person who is senior, superior, or just someone you're not too acquainted with. This only works for the second person. If your are talking of someone in third person, you use the singular pronouns and verbs, even if you would have used вы to ...


15

Actually you are asking about whether Russian is a pro-drop language. A pro-drop language, according to Wikipedia, is a language in which pronouns are usually omitted when they can be inferred. For example, Spanish and Portuguese are classical examples of pro-drop languages. "Te quiero" (I love you) can be heard way more often than "yo te quiero" just ...


15

It is веган or (rarely) веганец in Russian, the word is a typical internationalism. The word for "veganism" is веганство (analogous to "вегетарианство") or just веганизм. This word has appeared pretty recently in Russian, so no major dictionary has it (some of the newest ones do have it), but in the Russian Wiki there is an article about it.


15

Buckwheat plant is called гречиха. It is cultivated for its grain-like seeds called греча or гречка (гречневая крупа) which we cook. The cooked buckwheat is called гречка, греча, гречневая каша. There are also гречневый продел (which is grated buckwheat grain) and гречневая мука (buckwheat flour) used for cooking.


15

Instrumental is always used when talking about being or becoming, with the exception of the copula-less present tense and the shortened form of the adjective. Some examples: Я счастлив. Я студент. Я нервный. [sample adjective that has no short form] Я был счастлив. Я был студентом. Я был нервным. Я буду счастлив. Я буду студентом. Я буду нервным. Быть ...


15

"Her" isn't implied, there's just no need for it. Она хочет ему нравиться literally translates to "She wants to be liked by him". Hyper-literally, something like "she wants to disposition herself to him". With "them", the only way to word it is Они хотят, чтобы она ему нравилась, literally "they want that she be liked by him".


15

You could probably work something out from etymology, but generally speaking no, except this can only happen for unstressed vowels. Russian spelling is mostly morphological, so a good rule of thumb for stem vowels is to try and find a word that has the vowel in question stressed, though this isn’t always possible. For prefixes and suffixes you’ll just have ...


14

Слово «дно» в современном русском языке имеет весьма нетипичную форму множественного числа именительного падежа --донья. Налицо появление гласной протезы на месте *t+|o|+n. Такая же протеза возникает и в косвенных падежах слова «дно»: доньев (т.е. д|но – д-о-н/jэв/, где к корню /дон-/ (вариант в единственном числе /дн-/) присоединяется еще и окончание (-jэв)...


14

Выходить is to "go / come out", уходить is "to leave, to go away", every dictionary has it like that. The noun derived from выходить is выход, which is not only "exit", but also "a way out". The noun derived from уходить is уход, which is "departure" and "passing away" (especially in уход из жизни which means "death"). Generally speaking, the difference ...


14

This is a typical imperfective/perfective pair of verbs, they are different in their aspect only. And they, actually, have the same root, -пад-, only in падать it is followed by a thematic vowel -a-, and упасть does not have the vowel, the root is immediately followed by the infinitive suffix -ть, so the two similar consonants get dissimilated: *у-пад-ть -&...


14

Russian relies on the context. From the context it is almost always clear whether we speak about a definite or indefinite concept. In some cases it's unclear and we just use additional words to describe that. Look: There is boy whose name is Max. Boy entered room. In room there were lot of toys. Boy took his most beloved toy and went to another room. In ...


14

The subject is missing, and it is вы. The full sentence would be like this: Вы друг, можно сказать, детства, и вдруг вышли в такие вельможи-с! It is important for understanding the story that Тонкий initially called his friend ты, but when he discovered that his friend is now тайный советник (rank 3 in the Russian Empire), while Тонкий himself is only ...


14

Here же is an emphatic intensifying particle. Где ручка? is a straight question. Где же ручка? may be an expression of 1) impatience, frustration and annoyance of not being able to find it (Where's the pen for god's sake?) or 2) surprise about its disappearance or inability to find it (So where's the pen?)


13

Тоже and также very roughly correspond to English "too" and "as well". Тоже is a thematic (topical) adverb, также is rhematic (commentary). Тоже means that the comment on the topic of the previous sentence also applies to the topic of the new one (topic switch). Также means that another comment also applies to the topic of the previous ...


13

The correct variant is Согласно Вашему запросу. In the modern Russian language the preposition согласно needs the Dative case: Уже в XIX веке конструкция согласно чего, то есть с родительным падежом, расценивалась как характерная примета официально-деловой, канцелярской речи. В современном русском литературном языке нормативна только конструкция согласно ...


13

Я пойду дом is ungrammatical in exactly the same way "I will go house" is ungrammatical in English. The verb пойти is intransitive and cannot take a direct object. Part of the confusion is that "home" is both a noun and adverb in English. As a noun, it means "place of residence" (equivalent to "дом" in Russian), while as an adverb, it means "towards a place ...


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