This is a particle which puts some shared context or knowledge of the conversation as a theme (topic) of the conversation and expects some development (rheme) on that topic.
It's a description in very broad strokes, and the details differ between affirmative sentences and questions, so bear with me.
Here's a couple of examples for affirmative sentences:
-то is a particle used to emphasize the word it is used with.
Я-то понимаю. Ночь-то какая тёплая! Слушать-то слушал, да ничего не понял. Где-то он сейчас? Что дальше-то делать будешь?
It doesn't change the meaning though.
It is used with indefinite pronouns and adverbs.
Кто-то звонит. Что-то упало со стола. Какой-то человек вошёл в дом. Когда-то слышала ...
Russian has the T-V distinction.
This means that you use the plural version of "you" (вы) when addressing a person who is senior, superior, or just someone you're not too acquainted with.
This only works for the second person. If your are talking of someone in third person, you use the singular pronouns and verbs, even if you would have used вы to ...
You could say:
Переверните и те и другие песочные часы (одновременно).
The numerals два, три, четыре, оба don't play well with plural-only words like часы, весы, брюки, ножницы, сутки. You can easily say "25 суток" but there is no good way of saying the same for 24. These numerals govern genitive singular which plural-only nouns don't have. The ...
Nominative doesn't work for the same reason it doesn't work in this English statement:
*The dress is red colour.
But we can make it work using 'of':
The dress is of red colour.
I don't know why English loses the 'of' when the statement is converted into a question:
What colour is this dress?
Other languages keep it:
De quelle couleur est cette robe?
You can interpret "коробки" as a plural of "коробка" or "коробок", so it's obviously a trick question. With seeds either one would make sense. The examples you've found are indeed utterly incorrect and your friend is wrong as well - she simply guessed.
Well I am not a linguist but I will try to help you.
"Вот ведь" have different meaning than just "ведь"
When Russians say вот ведь in majority of causes it means "Just look what an interesting situation \ outcome"!
Вот ведь красивый закат!
What a beautiful sunset! (we have here)
Lets translate that sentence
Since on the source site you gave a link to there is a typo or an OCR mistake in the word установяенія instead of the correct установленія, I decided to check the original printed version of the manifesto if также is also a digitizing mistake. I found it in a scan of "Полное собраніе законовъ Россійской Имперіи" and it is really также there (scan ...
Rosenthal et al.:
Форма единственного числа сказуемого указывает на совместное действие, форма множественного числа – на раздельное совершение действия. Ср.: Пять солдат отправилось в разведку (группой). – Пять солдат отправились в разведку (каждый с самостоятельным заданием); К началу экзамена явилось десять студентов. – Десять студентов окончили институт ...
My Russian is at the A2 level, at best, and I don't know your teacher, so I don't know what reason he or she may have had for telling you that сок cannot be replaced by стакан сока, but I know why I would tell you that you shouldn't replace сок with стакан сока. I would tell you that "стакан сока" shouldn't replace "сока" because it ...
The difference is in emphasis:
У вас ли сыр? - Is the cheese with you?
Есть ли у вас сыр? - Have you got any cheese?
Ли usually follows the word being questioned:
(1) questions the location of the cheese (with you or somewhere else?)
(2) questions the existence of any cheese with you.
One could also ask:
Сыр ли у вас? - Is it cheese that you have?
У вас ...
In playing cards, ‘Queen’ is дама and ‘King’ is король. The first variant of the translation is absolutely correct,
Я между королем и дамой - Где я ?
Also, королем can be spelled as королём which is even more correct. Whenever a Russian word has the letter ё, one is free to spell it as e, still the pronunciation remains that of ё, that is, [jo] or [o] with ...
Most often “и” translates to “and”, but it's used in other ways as well. For example, it can be used before each item in an enumeration. Compare:
“Я купил чай, хлеб, сыр и чеснок”
“Я купил и чай, и хлеб, и сыр, и чеснок”
The first sentence sounds dry, a mere statement of fact: “I bought tea, bread, cheese, and garlic”. In the second sentence, by prefixing ...
In Russian, the question about the color of the dress has at least 3 possible answers:
(1) Платье красное. ~ Красное платье.
(2) Платье красного цвета. ~ Красного цвета платье.
(3) Цвет платья – красный. ~ Красный цвет платья.
Now let us see how we construct a question to get an answer of type (1), and how we do it for types (2) and (3).
In (1) красное is ...
At the time this manifesto was composed, the closest thing to an authority on Russian orthography was Grot's Русское правописание.
It reads (97.7.3):
(Для образованiя составныхъ реченiй соединяются еще) … мѣстоименiе или нарѣчiе съ союзомъ, или два союза: тоже (нарѣч.), однакоже, также. Но когда выражается сравненiе, то слѣдуетъ писать: такъ же скоро; такъ ...
Как работают антибиотики: когда они эффективны и бесполезны
Shouldn't "и" be "или" instead? I would think "effective, or useless". Certainly a drug is not both "effective and useless".
That's how I read this title:
Как работают антибиотики: когда они эффективны и (когда они) бесполезны
The 2nd когда они is not writen,...
First of all, answering your direct question: I personally think that yes, you should spell зерги with the lowercase, by analogy with the names of Earth animals, nations and races: волки, овцы; китайцы, русские; негры, индейцы etc.
The problem with applying this rule book is deciding whether or not we subscribe to the unwritten assumption that the rule set ...
“За покупкой” is a wrong choice to translate “for the purchase” in that sentence, “(store), for the purchase of general household goods and foods”.
“За покупкой” is “за” + Instrumental case, which is quite different from your link to Difference between "за" (as in "за что-либо/кого-либо") and "для" which deals with за + ...
It's just how it is :) When talking about the number, -9, you just don't decline the word 'minus':
N. минус девять
A. минус девять
G. минус девяти
D. минус девяти
I. минус девятью
P. минус девяти
Thus, your sentence should say:
Но́чью температу́ра коле́блется ме́жду ми́нус девятью́ и нулём гра́дусов.
When using «минус» as a noun in its own right, it is ...
The pedagogical purpose of the exercise is to introduce the specific Russian possessive construction “y + possessor in the Genitive case” which is rather unusual outside of the Slavic languages.
If what you wrote in your question is the exact way it is written in the exercise (no capital letter, no full stop), then those are noun phrases, not sentences, they ...
I think, the root of the problem is that the word "like" can have different meanings in English. It can mean "I want to buy/book/order" or simply "It is pleasant to me".
In the English sentence the intended meaning looks like "I want to buy", so the correct translation into Russian will not be with "мне нравится&...
I think it is similar to how we pronounce other punctuation when narrating. We will say "ударил мальчика дефис шута" for "ударил мальчика-шута", not "мальчика дефиса шута".
We will say "от пошёл за водкой", запятая, "колбасой", запятая, "сосисками", not он пошёл за водкой, запятой, колбасой, запятой,...
Judging by modern rules, yes, it is a grammatical mistake. (Good spot!) Although I don't think Russian grammar was codified to the same extent in 1900 as it is today.
Your translation is quite accurate and so is your understanding of the также / так же rule.
But it is a mistake to judge a 1900 document by a 1956 rulebook. ;)
All your examples can use short and long forms alike.
Short and long forms do have some very finely different stylistic shades: statements with short forms sound a little bit more certain and categorical. But it's not perceptible in isolation, outside of a larger context.
You should use short forms for:
Adjectives whose meanings have split for the short ...
"Исполнилось бы 12 лет, как он работает в этой фирме" is the most universal one, "исполнилось бы 12 лет, как он работал" can be applicable if narrator talks about events that happen in the past, "работал бы" is ungrammatical in this particular case, though in colloquial speech repetitive "бы" is quite frequent.
However! It worth to know that de-facto in ...
The author of the article I've read(your link) meant that he wrote about the proper use of antibiotics: when they are effective and when they are useless. But from the title we see that the text is about bouth efficiency and uselessness of them. Accoding to Russian grammar the title is incorrect. If I were an editor I would contract it to 'Как работают ...
First, about your examples. Grammar terms do not coincide in different languages, i.e. what can be called subjunctive or conditional in English is sometimes called otherwise in Russian.
What is it that you want?”— Чего ты хочешь?
”I suggest that you go over there.”— Предлагаю, (что?) чтобы ты туда поехал / туда поехать. (Complement clause, indicative)
”If it ...
As native russian I can tell you that:
Answers by @tom-au and @quassnoi don't suit this particular case. So section 2-3 by @v-v also do not.
Answer by @nick-the-dick is close but not exactly correct.
Section 1 by @v-v is correct but with some clarification: this particle indeed emphasizes (makes accent on applied word) to concentrate main target of a whole ...
A couple of examples:
In some questions with "when" it is used to show impatience. - "Когда они приедут-то?"
In some questions with "what" it is used to emphasize urgency. - "Что ж ты делаешь-то???"
In exclamatory aentences like "Красота-то!" it is used to draw special attention of the listener to something , ...