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9

The point is, in your sentences there are no two dative objects referring to the same predicate. Нужно ("is needed") is the predicate, it has one Dative object ("for whom"). The subject of нужно is, naturally, in the Nominative case ("what"). But in your examples the subject is expressed by a verbal phrase, an infinitive + its objects, that is why нужно ...


6

Firstly, both = оба, not обо. Yes, the dative of оба is обоим: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B0#Declension So вам обоим is the correct expression of `to both of you'. I would put the original phrase this way: Большое спасибо вам обоим.


6

The dative case marks the indirect object of a verb, but your example does not have a verb. You may think it is a shortened form. Please look at this examples, with a verb: verb | Сколько исполнилось тебе лет? Сколько дают тебе лет? Сколько было тебе лет? Сколько стукнуло тебе лет? Сколько осталось тебе ...


4

While Yellow Sky's answer may explain it technically, it doesn't seem to help distinguishing the two dative objects. Мне (ему / ей / и т. д.) нужно at the beginning of a clause is a "strong" collocation that makes the phrase unambiguous. You don't need any special intonation to make it understandable. If you make it "Yodic" (which would be still normally ...


4

Change of word order highlights different accents in the meaning. Generally, pulling a word forward from its "normal" place implies that it's for some reason more important. "Я подарила брату чемодан." - Neutral meaning. "Я подарила чемодан брату." - "Чемодан" is more important for some reason. Usually, this is implied from the context, like: "А где твой ...


4

Out of context this phrase can be parsed both ways indeed. Russian (as well as Latin and some other languages) has so called "dative of the agent", which conveys a meaning of necessity, moral obligation or fate: Тебе с ним жить // You'll be spending your life with him. Мне в магазин // I need to go to the store. Ей ли меня судить? // Is it up to ...


4

Corrected: "посадке на Луну предшествовали тренировочные полеты". Dative case used: "to which [Moon landing] something [training flights] was something [forerunner]".


4

Something like this happens at transformation into brief impersonal form: Где он может быть → Где ему можно быть → Где ему быть So you might think of 'dativeness' here literally as of something given to him, with 'given' omitted: Ну где ему (дано, положено, возможно, суждено) быть? (Там он и находится - сам подумай.) Well, where is he supposed to be? ...


4

Мне прочитать эту книгу and Мне не прочитать эту книгу are quite different. The former only makes sense as a question: Мне прочитать эту книгу? "Am I to read this book?" (Implying a rather weak degree of obligation/prescription, not "must".) The latter, negative one is a somewhat high-sounding "Never will I read this book!" (Implying intervening ...


4

The verb показываете is in fact imperfective as verbs in Present tense (in Russian at least) can't be perfective. I believe the source of your confusion is the two ways of using the verb to show in English. Namely: 1.to show smbd smth AND 2.to show smbd TO smth Into Russian they are not translated entirely identically: 1. is as показывать, whereas 2. ...


3

You've been taught wrong. К means "to" or "towards".


3

"Я учу играть на гитаре" is grammatical, but sounds a bit awkward to me. The sentence feels like it is missing an object: "Я учу его играть на гитаре" - "I am teaching him to play the guitar" sounds better. So I would use the dative when saying that I teach how to play the guitar in general, and the infinitive when saying that I ...


3

The verb "учить" in the meaning "to teach, to instruct" can be used with dative case: Я учу игре на гитаре - I teach how to play guitar (literally: I teach playing the guitar). Я учу английскому языку - I teach the English language.


3

Shouldn't it be in Genitive, seeing as it is "possessed" by her? This is not how genitive works. It marks the possessor without modifying the possessee in any way. "Man" is in Dative case. ("Husband" actually; "man" is мужчина.) Is this because he is the one the verb is "acting" upon, i.e. the receiver of the action or is it another rule, governing ...


3

Actually, "мне не прочитать эту книгу" means "I can't read (finish reading) this book". For example, because it is difficult or long etc. You cannot finish it. "Мне прочитать эту книгу" sounds wrong and nobody will ever say or understand this. It has no meaning.


3

I would say that however the following is grammatically correct, this is not what natives would say: –Kому тебе нужно сказать правду? Ей? –(да нет,) ему нужно мнe сказать правду. It's better to say this way: -Кому [тебе] нужно сказать правду? Ей? -(да нет,) ему. Stressing (с интонацией) at the word ему. No one would use the full answer in real life, P.S. ...


3

In phrase мне нужно ему сказать, что there's no slightest hint on disambiguation. Moreover, it is 100% valid grammar construction. It is translated like "I need to tell him that ...". And the second phrase, ему нужно мнe сказать, что is translated "He needs to tell me that ...". May be I don't get right the second part of you question, but no, the order is ...


2

"Ну где ему быть..." = "Ну где он может быть..." При чем и одно, и другое предложение может быть как вопросительным, так и повествовательным. Сама фраза звучит достаточно обыденно, ну а как так получается, что мы употребляем дательный падеж таким специфическим образом - так сразу и не ответишь ;-) Скорее всего, это остатки от старой языковой конструкции "...


2

You seem to have interpreted спасибо as implying a transitive verb (by analogy with to thank) which requires Accusative case as applied to inanimate objects, kind of like Благодарю [что?] вы (instead of [кого?] вас) It just have to be memorized that спасибо alone corresponds with Dative case, probably because it implies the verb говорить (спасибо) кому?, ...


2

1a is correct, no к is needed (к is needed with motion verbs: я иду́ к дру́гу vs. я дарю́ дру́гу). The answer is in the question itself: Како́му го́стю вы пока́зываете но́вые карти́ны? Just replace the question word како́му with иностра́нный, keeping the dative case ending (-ому): Иностра́нному го́стю вы пока́зываете но́вые карти́ны. which is a ...


2

With один, тысяча, миллион, триллион (in other words, with all that numeral that can be combined with один) dative is used - is just a rule that should be memorized. So: По [одному] миллиону долларов попросили оба министерства but Министерства запросили по два миллиона. Relevant quote from slightly outdated yet quite famous grammar reference: ...


1

Я подарила брату чемодан. This is just you telling someone that you gifted a suitcase to your brother. Я подарила чемодан брату. Sounds to me more like a start of a full sentence. E.g. Я подарила чемодан брату, а он его выкинул! Брату я подарила чемодан. Again, sounds like a beginning of a sentence: Брату я подарила чемодан, а сестре — сумку. Я ...


1

Accusative is governed by another verb, synonymous to предшествовать, namely предварять посадку на Луну предваряли тренировoчные полеты Semantically they're not completely identical, but still can be used as substitutes of each other.


1

A-ha-ha, I recall a French comedy calls "Viens chez moi, j'habite chez une copine" so that gives an idea why this question comes to your mind at all. Once again, never made assumptions on how something is supposed to be structured in one language just because it's the way it's structured in some other language. Even closely-related languages can approach ...


1

The relationship in both of your examples is the same, so the case is the same. It doesn't matter that истории is inanimate. (However, in some circumstances animate and inanimate words may change differently in the same grammatical case). Why Dative? Well, we can invent some mental bridges that can help to remember it, but the point is that this sort of ...


1

Сколько (Чего?) лет (Кому?) тебе? Сколько тебя лет? Сколько (Чего?) лет (У кого?) у тебя? Так как лето это пора года, то у тебя его быть не может. По этому в таком контексте не употребляется. Сколько (Чего?) лет опыта (У кого?) у тебя? А вот так можно сказать поскольку опыт у тебя может быть (измеренный летами).


1

Based on the by Highstaker's example: Ну где ему быть? Can be expanded to: Ну где ему ещё быть, как не в тюрьме? Which is equal in meaning to this, with more common grammar. Ну где ещё он может быть, как не в тюрьме? With all non-verbal implications this means: Since he went to prison, there's no chance for him to be anywhere else. Where ...


1

That's not a very widely used construction, and I can think of only one more or less proper use of it. It is generally used as an answer to a question, like: -А он в тюрьме? (Is he in jail?) -Ну где ему быть... It means something like "where else?". It's kinda "yes", plus you stress the obviousness of that, like in: "Of course he ...


1

The dative case (по-русски дательный падеж, от слова дать, давать) is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to which something is given, i.e. to addressee, destination. One of the scheme is Noun + to + Noun: a gift to one's friend подарок другу or, addressee/destination expressed by lexical meaning we have got to like it ...


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