31

Looking at the meanings of cognates of the Proto-Slavic čь̑rstvъ, one can notice the common meaning 'hard', 'strong', 'sharp'. I guess the Czechs and the Slovaks view fresh bread as 'hard on the outside', i.e. having a crispy crust, while Russian, Polish and others see it as 'hard on the inside', i.e. stale. It's just my guess. There are other examples of ...


29

The first Russian Emperor Peter I actually studied in what is modern-day Netherlands and was very inspired among other things, by the navy. Coming back to Russia he initiated the creation of the Russian naval fleet ("флот" is also a Dutch word by the way) - for the lack of local naval specialists, some foreign specialists had been hired. Also, a ...


29

The words you give fall essentially into three groups: Words that have been borrowed into both Russian and Dutch from some third source: meubel/мебель, from French, and paprika/паприка, from Serbo-Croatian (probably). Both of these are somewhat “international” words that are borrowed into many other languages too, like taxi, ananas, bank, etc. Words ...


23

Yes, it's Russian in the pre-reform orthography. The reform was in 1918, so this is just a hundred years old Russian. It's easy to understand, just as it's easy to understand a hundred years old English. The main difference from the Modern Russian is the use of some letters, which were removed from the alphabet in 1918. They were substituted with other ...


23

As you can notice nobody calls in Russian Francesco d'Assisi Франческо д'Ассизи - and I'm not saying this in ironical way. For instance, Leonardo da Vinci is indeed called Леонардо да Винчи. The thing is that traditions of transliterating names are not straightforward - some names are transliterated more or less at they "are", some names - do not. This ...


23

Just homonyms.There's an older word, подкол 'joke' together with the verbs подколоть (perf.), подкалывать (imp.) 'to play a joke [on smb]', but here 'the joke' is aimed at a person to make laugh of them. Прикол is almost the same, only another prefix is kind of showing that the joke is neutral, that is not aimed at/against somebody. That is a mere ...


18

Очень интересный вопрос, давайте прикинем. I. Сначала рассмотрим переход индоевропейских фонем в праславянские в варианте *r̥ḱt-os. Поскольку славянские языки – это языки "satem", то *ḱ > *s. Окончание *ŏs > *ŭs *r̥ > *ăr или *ŏr Получаем раннепраславянское *ărstŭs / *ŏrstŭs. Далее начал действовать закон открытых слогов и возрастающей звучности слога, ...


17

Because historically what we call past in modern Russian is perfect, and what we believe to be past forms of the verbs are in fact participles (adjectives formed from verbs). Compare: Он пел / она пела / оно пело (he / she / it has sung) Он бел / она бела / оно бело (he / she / it is white) In old Russian there was a number of other past tenses. The most ...


17

Объединять and its derivatives were not used in Russian before about 1850. Kostomarov did use it time to time in his works, however, he mostly used соединить wherever a modern Russian speaker would have used объединить: Итак, вместо того чтобы идти соединенными силами на половцев, Владимиру приходилось идти войною на своих. Рязанские и муромские князья уже ...


17

First of all, people call those they don't like "bastard" and "son of a bitch", even if they were not actually born out of wedlock and their mother was a woman rather than a female dog. "Fascist" is as good a label as any. If someone calls another person a bastard, the other people could agree or disagree with them, but this would be either "yes he's a ...


16

As a rule you just can not ask question like "why some words has changed their meaning". Well, you can but quite often we just can not say why. Just like phonetic changes, semantical shifts happen all the time. In some cases though we do have answer. Why in English the N-word become a racial slur - well, for two reasons. First, it had some racial ...


15

"Э оборотное" is just other name for "э". The reason why it's called "оборотное" (sort of reversed) is that modern Russian "е" initially was written as "є" - well, more strictly among other form this one was used as well. Buy the way, this is how it is still written in Ukrainian.


15

I looked into some of those book excerpts, and there are some homonyms. Both pre- and post-1918 «черт.» (with dot) could be an abbreviation for «чертёж(ъ)» (drawing, figure) - mostly in technical literature. Pre-1918 «чертъ» and post-1918 «черт» may be plural genitive of «черта» (line, trait). Some obvious notes: Disappearance of words ending with «ъ» is ...


15

I decided to turn my comment into an answer and add some references, etc. It is a very common phenomenon in related (but, nonetheless, different !) languages. A common language splits into branches and a word starts evolving in different directions. Over the centuries the meanings of the word in those 'branches' (which gradually develop into fully-fledged ...


14

Думаю что целенаправленного изменения штриха не было. Если посмотреть на заглавные буквы печатных книг, видно что штрих в букве И сначала был ровным, потом слегка наклоненным (как бы для удобства письма), затем этот наклон стал более выраженным. Что касается буквы Н, которая писалась как N, то ее вариации тоже в своих крайних формах меняли наклон среднего ...


13

Well, this kind of terms - I mean, terms for describing some branch of economical activity as a whole - usually came to active usage when economical statistics became a thing. In Russia, more or less like in the rest of the Europe this happened in the second half of XVIII century. One of the first economic entities in Russian Empire was, to my knowledge, "...


13

If you deal with languages that split quite recently, about 1000 years ago or even later as it was for the Slavic languages, you will definitely encounter the false friends, a phenomenon every translator has got to be highly aware of. I live in Ukraine and six highly similar languages surround me, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Belarusian, Slovak, and Czech. ...


12

This tradition comes way back from Old Church Slavonic. OCS was conceived as a literary language for translation of the Scripture. As such, though it was based on the Slavic dialect spoken in vicinity of what is now Thessaloniki, Greece, it had several features which made it a little bit different from the live spoken language. Mainly it was wide usage of ...


12

There's no such thing like "Siberian person" - Siberia is huge, really huge and was populated by very different people with different history, culture and genetic heritage. That said, there never was a single term universally used. Well, there's a word "полукровка" but it was used in context of any racial or ethnic mix-up. Also keep in mind that it's de-...


12

“дочерям их не будет ни в пути, ни при Дворе никаких обид” I am not a native speaker, but it is pretty straightforward, so I cannot miss the rare opportunity to answer: "Their daughters won't suffer any injustice or mistreatment on their way to the Royal Court or at it." The promise is of a very general character and is, essentially, "Don't worry, ...


11

Соединённые is historical, used AFAIK only with the US and the UK (Соединённое Королевство, which loses overwhelmingly to Великобритания in frequency of usage. The English term "United Kingdom" dates back to 1707.) As a translation of "united", it would sound "off" nowadays because the word in its current usage properly means "connected", which isn't quite ...


11

Возможно дело действительно в обращении. Они были регламентированы в зависимости от чинов и прочих заслуг. В частности, в переписке частные лица обращались следующим образом: ко всем частным лицам — «милостивый государь» (при обращении к высшему), «милостивый государь мой» (к равному), «государь мой» (к низшему). Возможно перенос слова "премилостивый" в ...


10

-ка is an imperative particle akin to the dative preposition к, cf дай-ка, ну-ка etc. -ся is a relaxed form of себе, as in иди себе, смотри себе etc. The whole idiom is most probably a result of an alliteration, influenced by the second word выкуси.


10

Якобы means "allegedly". It's perfectly normal in everyday speech. Дабы (either the first or the second syllable can be put under the stress) is an old-fashioned conjunction meaning "so that". You must have a clear intention on using such outdated word. Normally Russian speakers say "чтобы" or "для того, чтобы", but not "дабы".


10

Obviously nobody created the Russian language, it evolved from Slavic which evolved from some proto-Slavic which evolved from something that we now call Proto-Indo-European language. Tamil is not PIE language, it belongs to a widely recognized Dravidian family. It's an open issue how this family is related to the PIE but definitely the answer to your ...


9

After the fall of the reduced, къде became кде which then turned into где trough vocalization of the voiceless. къде is used in the gramotas (788, dated 1180-1200), где in several Old Russian texts of no later than XIII. Note that written Old Novgorod dialect mixed ъ and e. The interjacent form кде is used, say in the Primary Chronicle dated 1117. I'd ...


9

Those words are definitely related. The thing is that the relation is not direct. Let's start with колоть. It has two major meanings – to chop (when talking about wood), and to prick. The word кол derives from the first meaning, as it's a piece of wood that's chopped up to become pointy. Now about прикол, the "stake to tie something to" comes from кол and ...


8

To answer your second question, in modern Russian красный (красная, красное) means red, as in color. When someone says Красная площадь, what comes to mind is the square at the center of Moscow, and neither color red nor anything else. It’s like if someone would say Sears tower, it’s the landmark building in Chicago that comes to mind, not the retail chain or ...


8

If you had to generalize, do Russians today hear/understand the name as "Red Square" or "Beautiful Square" (regardless of what they know intellectually about its origins)? No. In modern Russian красный does not mean красивый. For example, even if there is an idiom красна девица or красная девица, meaning beautiful girl and used mostly in fairy tails, ...


8

Россия is a hellenized form of the native Russian word Русь. It was first attested in XIV century and had since been for some time a part of grand style rhetoric (высокий штиль), the one Lomonosov used in his scientific writings. At the time, it was just a fancy way to say "Russian". In the modern language, российский means something pertaining to the ...


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