28

The words you give fall essentially into three groups: Words that have been borrowed into both Russian and Dutch from some third source: meubel/мебель, from French, and paprika/паприка, from Serbo-Croatian (probably). Both of these are somewhat “international” words that are borrowed into many other languages too, like taxi, ananas, bank, etc. Words ...


28

The first Russian Emperor Peter I actually studied in what is modern-day Netherlands and was very inspired among other things, by the navy. Coming back to Russia he initiated the creation of the Russian naval fleet ("флот" is also a Dutch word by the way) - for the lack of local naval specialists, some foreign specialists had been hired. Also, a ...


17

As a rule you just can not ask question like "why some words has changed their meaning". Well, you can but quite often we just can not say why. Just like phonetic changes, semantical shifts happen all the time. In some cases though we do have answer. Why in English the N-word become a racial slur - well, for two reasons. First, it had some racial ...


13

The letter ф is found almost exclusively in loanwords. The only exceptions are sparse native Russian words like дрофа, филин and onomatopoeic words like фу, фыркать etc. The sound [f], though, can be found in many native Russian words as a devoiced allophone of /в/ in words like вторник, вперёд etc. It got there after the fall of the reduced, when consonant ...


6

The original meaning of the etymon was "excess, surplus". It is related to the words лишний "excess, spare" and лихва "loan interest". A word meaning "spare, excess" is a common metaphor for "evil, bad". Compare the French word excès, literally "excess", which also means "an outburst, something ...


6

There is nothing surprising about those similarities considering the fact that Russian belongs to the Indo-European languages (and I do recommend you to start from this Wiki article instead of watching random Youtube videos). having originated from the Cyrillic Slav branch There is no such thing. It belongs to the Slavic branch of Indo-European languages. ...


5

Actually at least some of them seem to be coming from German. While e.g. Möbel (furniture) or Rucksack (this one pronounced almost the same in Russian except for the "soft" ryu) could be from either, anything "st" -> "sht" in Russian is probably German because in standard German "st" followed by a vowel is ...


4

Классическим марксистским определением фашизма считается определение, представленное в резолюции XIII пленума Исполнительного комитета коммунистического интернационала (1934 г.) и повторенное на VII Конгрессе Коминтерна (1935 г.) - Георгием Димитровым, докладчиком по этому вопросу. «Фашизм — это открытая террористическая диктатура наиболее реакционных, ...


4

Происхождение слова "лихой" Этимологический онлайн-словарь Шанского Н. М. приводит два направления развития значений этого слова: Лихо́й. Общеслав. Того же корня, что греч. leiksanon «остаток». Суф. производное (суф. -s-) от *leik- «оставлять» (см. лишний). Исходно — «лишний, обильный» > «хороший» > «смелый, удалой» и т. д., с одной стороны, ...


2

I would like to add, that the recent meaning of "лихой" more like - causing a great effect, and not always in a positive way. For example: "Это был лихой день" means that the day was full of events that causing a great effect, good or bad depends on a context.


1

I would like to add to the Quassnoi's answer that excessiveness can sometimes be bad and sometimes be good. I can't agree that 'лихость' can be translated as 'bravery' or 'dare'. Of the words you mentioned I find 'dashing' and 'bold' much closer to an idea rendered by a word 'лихой'. Bravery is a virtue and can't be excessive. One can be excessively bold, ...


1

"научный деятель" is still used to mean a science worker, or someone who is professionally employed, or widely recognized, as an active contributor to scientific research. But to answer the question how to trace how the word became used instead of a phrase, the best tool to use is probably Google's ngrams. Here's a graph of use of "ученый мужъ&...


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