20

Russian is an inflecting language, meaning that endings change all the time for every possible reason. Russian has six cases for nouns and adjectives; on top of that, adjectives inflect for gender, number, and animateness to agree with the (explicit or presumed) noun they're describing; on top of that, Russian adjectives have a "short" or predicate form, ...


14

Как раз and -таки are emphatic particles, similar to emphatic "do" in English, but slightly differing in meaning. Я купил хлеба / I bought some bread Я-таки купил хлеба / I did buy some bread (after having failed to do this) Я-то как раз купил хлеба / I did buy some bread (unlike someone else) So -таки is a slight misuse here, it is just used to ...


14

"Уже" can be an adverb and an intensifying particle. As a particle it doesn't bear any meaning but is used with words denoting time to stress their duration. All your examples are connected with "time". You can leave out "уже" and the sentence becomes neutral. Скоро начало марта.(neutral soon) Скоро уже начало марта.(very soon or shows your ...


14

I believe «сложность» here is a verbal noun derived from «сложить» -- add together, and the construct means "having added all together". «Сложность» alone is not commonly used in that sense though; «в общей сложности» is a set phrase.


12

I would say, the difference between когда-то and когда-нибудь is somewhat similar to the difference between definite and indefinite article. "Когда-нибудь" means "at some time" or "some day", "когда-то" means "at certain time" or "one day". Compare: Если много играть в эту лотерею, то когда-нибудь ...


12

"Возле" and "около" are indeed quite interchangeable (thanks @shabunc) when we are talking about location. Small nuance is that "около" implies more vague and potentially more distant location than “возле”. For “возле”, both objects need to be visualized together, while for "около" they do not. For example "около ...


11

Debates around the group of words нельзя, можно, надо, жаль, пора, грех, стыд, неохота, больно ( в безличных предложениях)etc. have been going since 1928, when Щерба Л.В. wrote his article «О частях речи в русском языке».("Word classes in Russian ). He said it's difficult to refer these words to any of the existing "parts of speech ". He called them "a ...


11

"Возле" and "около" are quite interchangeable, with the only difference that "около" has additional meaning of designating approximate values, like in "около шести утра" (you can not say "возле шести утра"). "Рядом" is, indeed, also very close in meaning to "возле" and "около" ...


9

No, как can't be used to equally replace вроде. In this sentence, вроде means such as, and can be replaced with a clause beginning with такое как: Там паук ждёт, пока в лову́шку не попадётся небольшое насеко́мое, такое как ба́бочка или стрекоза. (note the case change here).


9

This means the highest degree of a quality denoted by an adverb. To use an awkward equivalent just for the sake of illustration полным-полнО is full to the fullest. давным-давно - a very long time ago черным-черно - pitch black темным-темно - extremely/completely/totally dark


8

I suppose, your confusion stems from the fact, that in English different use cases of "home" can be translated to Russian as either "домой" or "дома". Like in: "I'm going home" — "Я иду домой" "I'm home (at last)" — "Я дома (наконец-то)" In Russian "домой" and "дома" are absolutely different words. The word "домой" means a direction to home and answers to ...


7

This как refers to уже два дня, not to the verb. [Вот] уже period of time как means 'it's already been period of time since', and "Букля уже два дня как улетела" means 'it's been already two days since Buklya flew away.'


7

I tried to figure out if German or English do also have different words for left and right, but I can't think of any. Maybe my understanding of the three word pairs is just wrong and therefore I can't conclude the correct German or English counterparts, if any existing. Do you know counterparts in the English language (and German, if applicable)? ...


7

Predicative is an ambiguous term that can also mean a part of sentence and include adjectives, adverbs and participles. So I do not recommend using this term. There are linguists who propose a separate part of speech, called категория состояния, that is, category of state. They count нельзя as such part of speech. Examples: У меня на душе спокойно (category ...


7

Actually, all those phrases are idiomatic, and their list is restricted. Белым-бело is about snow outdoors, темным-темно and черным-черно are about the darkness in the night, or just in a dark place, полным-полно has already been mentioned. Maybe, there exist something else, but it doesn't come to my mind. Светлым-светло. These phrases are used as either ...


7

The difference is similar to that between куда and где: the former implies a goal or direction ("where to"), while the latter -- presence or momentary location ("where at"). Им некуда идти -- They have no place where they can (or want to) go Им негде сесть -- They have no place to sit where they currently are


7

"В общей сложности" is indeed a synonym of "в итоге", "в общем" and "в сумме", but, as usual, there are little nuances. "В общей сложности" used when we are summarizing some measure that was not originally intended to be summarized, or if the process of this summarization is not mathematically sound. This is roughly a "precision rank" among these phrases: ...


7

The adjective is хлёсткий ("good at lashing"), the comparative is хлеще (not *хлёще) It comes from хлестать "to lash" and means "trenchant, scathing, vitriolic". Note that all these words, Russian and English alike, are metaphors which literally mean "causing damage or pain" The pattern which is used to form this ...


7

To start here is a list of English words that are close enough to the respective Russian words that you can use as a hint рядом — next to возле — near or close около — around Semantic differences Рядом suggests some sequence or row of objects where one is positioned next to another. Consider booking seats in a theater: место рядом с вами would assume the ...


6

"Вероятно" is like "probably" or "likely"; "Наверняка" is like "for sure". If the statement about Andrew's calamities is expected to be overestimated (i.e. a mother which always worries about her son), "наверняка" may sound better.


6

Here it means something like "all in all" (as you write in the comment to another answer) or maybe "after all" would be a little closer. This would be the meaning in any context I can think of right now. I wonder what else you found in the dictionaries. Your friend made a very common and funny grammatical error at the end of the sentence (not to mention the ...


6

Here it means "still", "after all". So, the author of the passage means that "if you think about it, the level of education in Poland is probably better, anyway, so I'll have more opportunities in the future with a Polish dimploma". Note also that the use of adverbal participle here is not completely correct because in Russian grammar such participle is ...


6

That's simply Dative vs. Instrumental case issue. There is natural (although hidden in your translation) correspondence here: dance with --> Instrumental case --> танцевать друг с другом help to --> Dative case --> помогать друг другу The verb разговаривать yet differs: in Russian разговаривать denotes "cross-personal" communication exclusively, so it ...


6

Just to add up something to the given answer. While "гораздо" and "намного" are indeed almost identical, sometime first word is more appropriate to use. It's better not to use "намного" with words with the same root and antonyms. So forms like гораздо многообразней or гораздо меньше are preferable compared to намного многообразней - this sounds ...


6

Technically, it is sometimes an adverb and sometimes a particle. While as an adverb it expresses completeness, as a particle it emphasizes a big amount of something (time, quantity etc.) and shows your impatience or annoyance with the fact or excitation about it. You can omit the particle in most cases and it won't change the meaning, but the sentence will ...


6

My attempt: whether the phrase "это не суть важно" is grammatically correct, No. But yes, it's a relatively widespread phrase. I believe I've heard people saying it. if the phrase is incorrect, why people use it that often, strongly preferring it to "это не есть важно," They don't (usually) realise that it's grammatically incorrect and/or don't care. ...


6

As recently as 150 years ago, сложность used to mean "totality, entirety", something that in the modern language is usually conveyed by the word совокупность: Но судя о людях и делах людских, должно брать в соображение не отдельные черты или происшествия, а всю их сложность Откройся, мать наша, безмерная Русь, мир-государство, во всей полноте ...


5

По-том-ивзовски. From Lopatin's Правила русской орфографии и пунктуации: § 138. Пишутся через дефис: … Наречия с приставкой по-, оканчивающиеся на -ому, -ему, -ски, -цки, -ьи … по-социал-демократически, по-жюль-верновски, по-тёти-Валиному. That's quite a recent innovation, 1956's rules called for a single hyphen here: по-томивзовски.


5

Равный yields the short neuter равнó but the adverb is рáвно. I think there are other adverbs that don't follow suit when the corresponding short adjective shifts stress to the last syllable. Then, most passive participles with the suffix -нн- lose the second н in the short form, while the adverb keeps it geminated: растерянный — общество растеряно, but ...


5

Same. In this particular sentence you would translate it ... only yesterday ... , but essentially the meaning is the same: yesterday they were still there. Although, there is a subtle difference in that it is вчера that is stressed, so only yesterday is a better fit.


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